|Scientific Name:||Lagothrix lugens|
|Species Authority:||Elliot, 1907|
Lagothrix lagotricha subspecies lugens Elliot, 1907
|Taxonomic Notes:||The taxonomy of Lagothrix is based on Fooden (1963), but follows Groves (2001, 2005) in recognizing cana (E. Geoffroy, 1812), lugens Elliot, 1907, and poeppigii Schinz, 1844 as full species rather than subspecies of lagotricha (Humboldt, 1812). Groves (2001, 2005) also recognized the form tschudii Pucheran, 1857, from Peru (see Cruz Lima 1945).|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Critically Endangered A3cd ver 3.1|
|Assessor/s:||Stevenson, P. & Link, A.|
|Reviewer/s:||Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority)|
Listed as Critically Endangered as it seems reasonable to expect that the population of this species will decline in the order of 80% over the next 45 years (three generations) due primarily to the effects of habitat loss and hunting.
|Range Description:||The range was delimited by Defler (2003, 1004) and Hernández-Camacho and Cooper (1976). Occurs to the north of the lower Río Guayabero, where it is scarce (Klein and Klein 1976). More common through the piedmont of the Uribe region (between La Macarena and the Cordillera Oriental and in the Serrania La Macarena). It extends north to the along the eastern slopes of the Cordillera Oriental to about 3,000 m. In Central Colombia, L. lugens extends from the upper Magdalena valley to at least southern Tolima, west of the of the Río Magdalena and historically at least to the southern part of the Department of Cesar, on the west side of the Cordillera. It is almost certainly extinct there today. There is an isolated enclave in the Serrania de San Lucas in south-eastern Bolivar and northern Antioquia at the northern end of the Central Cordillera. The San Lucas population, studied briefly by Kavanagh and Dresdale, 1975), may have been connected to the populations of the upper Magdalena valley when there was forest there. L. lugens meets L. lagothricha somewhere in the Department of Caquetá, but exactly where is not known.
Bodini and Pérez-Hernández (1987) reported that no woolly monkeys have been collected in Venezuela, but that they would expect L. lugens to occur in the Selva San Camilo. State of Apure (following the distribution proposed by Fooden  and Hernández-Camacho and Cooper ).
Native:Colombia (Colombia (mainland))
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Occurs at densities of up to 50 individuals/km² in protected areas (P. Stevenson pers. comm.).|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
Occurs in primary forest from lowlands up to elevations of 3,000 m. They have also been recorded in gallery and Mauritia palm forest odf the eastern plains of Colombia as well as in seasonally flooded forest (Hernández-Camacho and Cooper 1976; Klein and Klein 1976; Moynihan 1976). Studying a group of L. lugens in the Tinigua National Park, Colombia, Stevenson et al. (1994) observed a preference for mature forest (82% of the group's time spent there) over open, degraded forest (11%) and flooded forest (5%).
In 1967, Klein and Klein (1976) made some observations on the habitat and distribution of this species in La Macarena Natural National Park, Colombia, and Bernstein et al. (1976a) and Kavanagh and Dresdale (1975) made a brief study of its behaviour in a patch of cloud forest in the Serrania de San Lucas, Bolívar, Colombia. Woolly monkeys are frugivores, eating also young leaves, leaf buds, flowers, nectar and bark (Ramirez 1980). Stevenson et al. (1994) reviewed observations on group sizes in the Tinigua National Park. Seven groups observed during the late 1980s and early 1990s ranged in size from 14 to about 33. One of the groups (17 individuals: 4 adult males, 5 adult females, 1 subadult male, 1 subadult female, 2 infant males and 2 infant females) ranged over 169 ha.
Late maturation and long inter-birth intervals (typically around 3 years) makes it difficult for them to recover from hunting and other threats. Females begin mating at 5 or 6 years of age, when they leave their natal groups, but do not conceive until 1.5-3 years later (Nishimura et al. 1992).
|Major Threat(s):||The major threats are hunting for food (mainly subsistence) and habitat loss due agricultural development/expansion. Habitat loss is also taking place due to clearance of forest for coca plantations, accompanied by fumigation of coca plantations that results in defoliation of contiguous forests. Late maturation and long inter-birth intervals (typically around 3 years) makes it difficult for them to recover from hunting and other threats.|
This species occurs in the three contiguous protected areas of:
La Macarena National Park (630,000 ha) (see Nishimura and Izawa 1975; Nishimura 1986; 1988, 1990a,b; Stevenson 1992)
Tinigua National Natural Park (201,875 ha) (see Stevenson et al. 1994; Stevenson 2000; Stevenson and Castellanos 2000)
Cordillera de los Picachos Natural National Park (286,600 ha) (in range: Defler 2003, 2004).
Also present in Cueva de los Guacharos Natural National Park (9,000 ha) (INDERENA 1989).
This species is listed on Appendix II of CITES.
Bernstein, I. S., Balcaen, P., Dresdale, L., Gouzoules, H., Kavanagh, Patterson, T. and Newman-Warner, P. 1976a. Differential effects of forest degredation on primate populations. Primates 27(3): 401-411.
Bodini, R. and Pérez-Hernández, R. 1987. Distribution of the species and subspecies of cebids in Venezuela. Fieldiana: Zoology 39: 231?244.
da Cruz Lima, E. 1945. Mammals of Amazônia, Vol. 1. General Introduction and Primates. Contribuições do Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi de História Natural e Etnografia, Belém do Pará, Brazil.
Defler, T. R. 2003. Primates de Colombia. Conservation International, Bogota.
Defler, T. R. 2004. Primates of Colombia. Conservation International, Washington, DC, Usa.
Fooden, J. 1963. A revision of the woolly monkeys (genus Lagothrix). Journal of Mammalogy 44(2): 213-247.
Groves, C. P. 2001. Primate taxonomy. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA.
Groves, C. P. 2005. Order Primates. In: D. E. Wilson and D. M. Reeder (eds), Mammal Species of the World, pp. 111-184. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.
Hernández-Camacho, J. and Cooper, R. W. 1976. The nonhuman primates of Colombia. In: R. W. Thorington, Jr. and P. G. Heltne (eds), Neotropical Primates: Field Studies and Conservation, pp. 35-69. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC, USA.
Inderena. 1989. A Guide to the National Natural Parks System of Colombia. Instituto Nacional de los Recursos Naturales Renovables y del Medio Ambiente (INDERENA), Bogota, Columbia.
Kavanagh, M. and Dresdale, L. 1975. Observations on the woolly monkey (Lagothrix lagotricha) in northern Colombia. Primates 16: 285?294.
Klein, L. L. and Klein, D. J. 1976. Neotropical primates: Aspects of habitat usage, population density, and regional distribution in La Macarena, Colombia. In: R. W. Thorington, Jr. and P. G. Heltne (eds), Neotropical Primates: Field Studies and Conservation, pp. 70-78. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC, USA.
Moynihan, M. 1976. The New World Primates. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.
Nishimura, A. 1988. Mating behavior of woolly monkeys , Lagothrix lagotricha, at La Macarena, Colombia. Field Studies of New World Monkeys, La Macarena, Colombia 1: 19-27.
Nishimura, A. 1990. Mating behavior of woolly monkeys (Lagothrix lagotricha) at La Macarena, Colombia II: mating relationships. Field Studies of New World Monkeys 3: 7-12.
Nishimura, A. and Izawa, K. 1975. The group characteristics of woolly monkeys (Lagothrix lagothricha) in the upper Amazonian basin. In: S. Kondo, M. Kaeai, A. Ehara and S. Kawamura (eds), Proceedings from the Symposia of the Fifth Congress of the International Primatological Society. Tokyo, Japan.
Nishimura, A., Wilches, A. V. and Estrada, C. 1992. Mating behaviors of woolly monkeys, Lagothrix lagotricha, at la Macarena, Colombia (III): reproductive paramaters viewed form longterm study. Field Studies of New World Monkeys 7: 1-7.
Stevenson, P. R. 1992. Diet of woolly monkeys (Lagothrix lagotricha) at La Macarena, Colombia. Field Studies of New World Monkeys, La Macarena, Colombia 6: 3-14.
Stevenson, P. R. 2000. Seed dispersal by woolly monkeys (Lagothrix lagothricha) at Tinigua National Park, Colombia: Dispersal distance, germination rates, and dispersal quantity. American Journal of Primatology 50(4): 275-289.
Stevenson, P. R. and Castellanos, M. C. 2000. Feeding rates and daily path range of the Colombian woolly monkeys as evidence for between- and within-group competition. Folia Primatologica 71(6): 399-408.
Stevenson, P. R., Quiñones, M. J. and Ahumada, J. A. 1994. Ecological strategies of woolly monkeys (Lagothrix lagotricha) at Tinigua National Park, Colombia. American Journal of Primatology 32: 123-140.
Williams, L. 1967. Breeding Humboldt's woolly monkey Lagothrix lagotricha at Murrayton Woolly Monkey Sanctuary. International Zoo Yearbook, pp. 86-89.
Wolf, R. H., Harrison, R. M. and Martin, T. W. 1975. A review of reproductive patterns in New World monkeys. Laboratory Animal Science 25: 814-821.
|Citation:||Stevenson, P. & Link, A. 2008. Lagothrix lugens. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 13 December 2013.|
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