Lagothrix cana 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Primates Atelidae

Scientific Name: Lagothrix cana
Species Authority: (É. Geoffroy in Humboldt, 1812)
Infra-specific Taxa Assessed:
Common Name(s):
English Peruvian Woolly Monkey, Geoffroy's Woolly Monkey
Lagothrix lagotricha ssp. cana (É. Geoffroy in Humboldt , 1812)
Taxonomic Notes: The taxonomy of Lagothrix is based on Fooden (1963), but follows Groves (2001, 2005) in recognizing cana (E. Geoffroy, 1812), lugens Elliot, 1907, and poeppigii Schinz, 1844 as full species rather than subspecies of lagothricha (Humboldt, 1812).

Lagothrix l. tschudi Pucheran, 1857 was not recognized in the last comprehensive review of Lagothrix taxonomy (Fooden 1963). Fooden (1963) considered it a junior synonym of L. lagotricha cana. The name based on a Peruvian specimen was referred to as L. humboldtii by I. Geoffroy, 1851; report of specimen “indiqué comme originaire de Bolivie”. Groves (2001, 2005) recognized Lagothrix cana tschudii as a valid subspecies, but the type locality is not known (Bolivia or Peru).

Cruz Lima (1945) depicted an orange-coloured infant Lagothrix, evidently from a specimen in the Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi, Belém, and reportedly from the Río Napo. This form was discovered by C. A. Peres in 2002 on the upper Rios Jutaí and Jutaízinho. It was reported by Van Roosmalen (2003), who gave it a latin binomial which, as it was described only on the website, is not valid.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered A2cd ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-06-30
Assessor(s): Boubli, J.-P., Di Fiore, A., Rylands, A.B. & Wallace, R.B.
Reviewer(s): Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority)
This species is listed as Endangered given that at least a 50% population decline is estimated to have occurred over the past 3 generations (45 years) due to heavy deforestation and hunting.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Lagothrix cana cana
Occurs south of the Rio Amazonas-Solimões in Brazil, between the Rio Juruá and the rios Tapajós and Juruena. There are localities on the upper reaches of the Juruena (Fooden 1963), and possibly west extends from there to the Rio Guaporé on the Bolivian border (Wallace et al. 1996). Iwanaga and Ferrari (2002) clarified the southern limits to the range of L. cana in the state of Rondônia. They found that L. cana was absent from all of the sites they surveyed in the interfluvium of the rios Mamoré, Madeira and Jiparaná. It was recorded at two sites on the BR364 highway north of the rios Abunã and Madeira, and it occurs along the right (north) bank of the Rio Jiparaná and its tributary the Rio Pimenta Bueno. They also found it at two localities south of the Rio São Pedro, west of the Rio Pimenta Bueno. The south of Rondônia is a mix of montane and lowland areas and forest and savanna and Iwanaga and Ferrari (2002) concluded that L. cana may be limited in the southernmost part of its range by areas of unsuitable low transitional forest on sandy soils. Lagothrix cana is evidently absent from the Guaporé grasslands and from the right bank of the Rio Abunã in Bolivia (Iwanaga and Ferrari 2002). In Peru, it occurs between the ríos Pachitea and Ucayali and south from the Río Inuya to both sides of the Río Madre de Dios and the Río Tambopata basin, as far as the Río Inambari to the frontier with Bolivia (Aquino and Encarnación 1994a). However, surveys in Tambopata and lowland Bahuaja-Sonene have not registered this species over the past 10 years. Peres (1987) reported that woolly monkeys do not occur between the upper Rio Purus and Iaco. A large part of the range of L. cana in Peru may well in fact be that of L. cana tschudii, perhaps at least in the higher elevations of the Andean forests (see below).

Lagothrix cana tschudii
Groves (2001, 2005) recognized the form tschudii as a valid subspecies, but the type locality is not known (Bolivia or Peru). He indicated that two forms with more precise type localities were junior synonyms:
Alouatta nigra J. Allen, 1900 – Peru, Puno, “Juliaca” [= Inca mines], 5,000 ft, Allen, 1901, field notes.
Lagothrix thomasi Elliot, 1909, Peru: Cuzco, Rio Comberciato, Callanga, 1,500 m. BM
Both are localities in the south east of Peru.

An isolated population of Lagothrix was discovered by Wallace and Painter (1999) in Madidi National Park, Bolivia, at 1,500 m which may be a new taxon or quite possibly L. cana tschudii Pucheran, 1857. There was some variation but “overall Individuals were dark smoky gray with ventral area noticeably darker and head and face essentially black." Wallace and Painter (1999) concluded that the population was localized and isolated. There is no evidence of its occurrence in the adjacent Bolivian lowland forests below 1,000 m. Further investigation is required. This is the only modern record of Lagothrix occurring in Bolivia.
Countries occurrence:
Bolivia, Plurinational States of; Brazil (Acre, Amazonas, Mato Grosso, Pará); Peru
Additional data:
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:Peres (1990) compared densities of Lagothrix cana cana in hunted and unhunted sites:
Hunted: Tahuayo (Bodmer et al. 1988) 1.2 individuals/km²; Ponta da Castanha (Johns 1985, 1986) 6.0 individuals/km².
Not hunted: Igarapé Acu (Peres 1988) 30.5 individuals/km²; Urucú (Peres 1988) 27.7 individuals/km²; Tefé (Peres 1988) 20.0 individuals/km²; Açaituba (Johns 1985, 1986) 17.0 individuals/km².

Peres (1997) estimated the densities of Lagothrix cana cana at two sites in the Brazilan Amazon: Condor 11.1 individuals/km²; Altamira 26.2 individuals/km². Rylands (1982) estimated densities of (hunted) woolly monkeys in terra firma forest ranging from 7.4 to 13.3 individuals/km² (four trails) at Aripuanã, northern Mato Grosso (left bank of the Rio Aripuanã.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Lagothrix cana cana is typical of lowland rain forest in the upper Amazon. Peres (1996) found that they preferred high terra fimra forest to low-lying, water logged for most of the year. Only 2.6% of their time was spent in creekside forest. Wallace and Painter (1999) observed an isolated population of woolly monkeys in Madidi, Bolivia, which may be Lagothrix cana tschudii. The habitat they described as low-elevation Andean cloud forest, with abundant mosses, tree ferns, bromeliads and orchids and a mossy ground layer on step slopes. Small basins where canopy reaches 30-35 m but they also use dryer and lower forest found on the steeper slopes. In Madidi, informants told Wallace and Painter (1999) that they were common in higher cloud forest between 1,500 m and 2,500 m. They are not found below 700 m (the lowest record in Madidi).

Ramirez (1980, 1988) studied L. l. tschudii in the Manu National Park (see also Terborgh 1983). Peres (1994b, 1996) studied Lagothrix cana at an undisturbed terra firma forest on the upper Rio Urucu in 1998/1989. The study group comprised 39-41 independantly locomoting individuals that ranged over 962 ha. They ranged in large, loose social units, covering several to many hectares of forest at any one time. They were not observed to split into separate units, foraging and travelling independantly. The spread of the group averaged 431 m (range 60-1,920 m, n=76 mapped locations). The woollies were most cohesive during the middle of the wet season and least cohesive during the late dry season. They fed mainly in large- to very large-crowned trees. The diet recorded by Peres (1994a) comprised ripe and unripe fruits (80.7% of records), young leaves (14.4%), mature leaves (0.1% from a single tree Couratari stellata, Lecythidaceae), petioles (1.7%) and flowers (3.1%). They also eat exudates of Parkia seed pods. Young leaves, flowers, seeds and exudates tend to be eaten more when fruit availability is low (Peres 1994).

Adult male H&B 49.5 cm, TL 70.5 cm; adult female H&B 46.7 cm, TL 65.8 cm (as for L. puruensis Lönnberg, 1940).
Adult male weight mean 9.49 kg (8.93-10.2 kg, n=3), adult female weight 7.65 kg (n=1) (Peres 1994a,b).

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): This species is heavily hunted and infants are much favoured as pets. In his primate population surveys in a number of sites in the upper Amazon, south of the Rio Solimões in Brazil, Peres (1990) found that Lagothrix, Ateles and Alouatta were prime targets for hunting. Both the woolly monkeys and the spider monkeys were "extremely rare, if not locally extinct", he believed because of hunting, at three of the sites. They were not seen during his transect surveys at the three sites (150 km walked). At one of these sites (Riozinho), between the rios Juruá and Tefé , Peres (1990) reported that the single extended family of rubber tappers (three hunters) there killed over 200 woolly monkeys in a little less than two years, resulting in their local extinction (spider monkeys were nearly extinct there and howlers "drastically reduced"). For these larger species, hunting is the main threat prior to deforestation, and even low-intensity colonization severely reduces their numbers. The females with offspring tend to be targeted by hunters, so that they can sell the infants as pets. Heavy deforestation also occurs in many parts of this species' range, notably in the east and south (Mato Grosso, Rondonia). Mining (e.g., cassiterite) is a cause of forest loss and hunting in the south of its range,

Lagothrix cana tschudii would appear to have a very restricted range, but large parts of it are completely uninhabited (Wallace and Painter 1999).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species occurs, or may occur, in a number of protected areas:

Lagothrix cana cana

Amazonia National Park (1,114,917 ha) (in range)
Mapinguari National Park (1,572,422 ha) (in range)
Abufari Biological Reserve (224,819 ha) (in range)
Jaru Biological Reserve (353,386 ha) (in range)
Iquê Ecological Station (217,184 ha) (in range)
Rio Acre Ecological Station (79,418 ha) (in range)
Cuniã Ecological Station (49,886 ha) (in range)
Jatuarana National Forest (837,100 ha) (in range)
Macauá National Forest (173,475 ha) (in range)
São Francisco National Forest (21,235 ha) (in range)
Santa Rosa do Purus National Forest (230,257 ha) (in range)
Humaita National Forest (468,790 ha) (in range)
Jamari National Forest (215,000 ha) (in range)
Bom Futuro National Forest (280,000 ha) (in range)
Purus National Forest (256,000 ha) (in range)
Mapiá-Inauini National Forest (311,000 ha) (in range)
Pau Rosa National Forest (827,877 ha) (in range)
Tefe National Forest (1,020,000 ha) (in range)

Lagothrix cana tschudii

Entire known range in Bolivia is within two protected areas:
Apolobamba Natural Area of Integrated Management
Madidi National Park and Natural Area of Integrated Management.

This species is listed on Appendix II of CITES.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
1. Forest -> 1.8. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Swamp
suitability:Suitable  major importance:No
2. Savanna -> 2.2. Savanna - Moist
suitability:Suitable  major importance:No
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
3. Species management -> 3.1. Species management -> 3.1.1. Harvest management

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
  Included in international legislation:Yes
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:Yes
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.1. Housing & urban areas
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.2. Small-holder farming
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.3. Agro-industry farming
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.3. Livestock farming & ranching -> 2.3.2. Small-holder grazing, ranching or farming
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.3. Livestock farming & ranching -> 2.3.3. Agro-industry grazing, ranching or farming
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

3. Energy production & mining -> 3.2. Mining & quarrying
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

4. Transportation & service corridors -> 4.1. Roads & railroads
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.5. Motivation Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

7. Natural system modifications -> 7.2. Dams & water management/use -> 7.2.11. Dams (size unknown)
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Research -> 1.1. Taxonomy
1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

♦  Food - human
 Local : ✓ 

♦  Pets/display animals, horticulture
 Local : ✓ 

Bibliography [top]

Aquino, R. and Encarnación, F. 1994. Primates of Peru / Los Primates del Perú. Primate Report 40: 1-127.

Bodmer, R. R., Fang, T. E. and Ibanez, L. M. 1988. Primates and ungulates: A comparison of susceptibility to hunting. Primate Conservation 9: 79-82.

da Cruz Lima, E. 1945. Mammals of Amazônia, Vol. 1. General Introduction and Primates. Contribuições do Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi de História Natural e Etnografia, Belém do Pará, Brazil.

Defler, T. R. 2003. Primates de Colombia. Conservation International, Bogota.

Defler, T. R. 2004. Primates of Colombia. Conservation International, Washington, DC, Usa.

Eisenberg, J.F. and Redford, K.H. 1999. Mammals of the Neotropics. The Central Neotropics. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, USA.

Fooden, J. 1963. A revision of the woolly monkeys (genus Lagothrix). Journal of Mammalogy 44(2): 213-247.

Groves C. 2001. Primate Taxonomy. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA.

Groves, C.P. 2005. Order Primates. In: D.E. Wilson and D.M. Reeder (eds), Mammal Species of the World, pp. 111-184. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Iwanaga, S. and Ferrari, S. F. 2002. Geographic distribution and abundance of woolly (Lagothrix cana) and spider (Ateles chamek) monkeys in southwestern Brazilian Amazonia. American Journal of Primatology 56: 57-64.

Johns, A. D. 1985. Primates and forest exploitation at Tefé, Brazilian Amazonia. Primate Conservation 6: 27-29.

Johns, A. D. 1986. Effects of habitat disturbance on rain forest wildlife in Brazilian Amazonia. Unpublished report, World Wildlife Fund-US, Washington, DC, USA.

Lönnberg, E. 1940c. Notes on some members of the genera Lagothrix and Ateles. Arkiv för Zoologi 32(25): 1-14.

Peres, C. A. 1987. Conservation of primates in western Brazilian Amazonia. World Wildlife Fund - US, Washington, DC, USA.

Peres, C. A. 1988. Primate community structure in western Brazilian Amazonia. Primate Conservation 9: 83-87.

Peres, C. A. 1990. Effects of hunting on western Amazonian primate communities. Biological Conservation 54: 47-49.

Peres, C. A. 1994. Diet and feeding ecology of gray woolly monkeys (Lagothrix lagotricha cana) in central Amazonia: comparisons with other atelines. International Journal of Primatology 15(3): 333-372.

Peres, C. A. 1994. Which are the largest New World monkeys? Journal of Human Evolution 26: 245-249.

Peres, C. A. 1996. Use of space, spatial group structure, and foraging group size of gray woolly monkeys (Lagothrix lagotricha cana) at Urucu, Brazil: A review of the Atelinae. In: M. A. Norconk, A. L. Rosenberger and P. A. Garber (eds), Adaptive Radiations of Neotropical Primates, pp. 467-488. Plenum Press, New York.

Peres, C. A. 1997. Primate community structure at twenty western Amazonian flooded and unflooded forests. Journal of Tropical Ecology 13: 381-405.

Ramirez, M. 1980. Grouping patterns of the woolly monkey, Lagothrix lagotricha, at the Manu National Park, Peru. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 52: 269.

Ramirez, M. 1988. The woolly monkeys (genus Lagothrix). In: R. A. Mittermeier, A. B. Rylands, A. F. Coimbra-Filho and G. A. B. da Fonseca (eds), Ecology and Behavior of Neotropical Primates. Vol. 2, pp. 539-575. World Wildlife Fund, Washington, DC, USA.

Rylands, A. B. 1982. The behaviour and ecology of three species of marmosets and tamarins (Callitrichidae, Primates) in Brazil. Doctoral Thesis, University of Cambridge.

Terborgh, J. 1983. Five New World Primates: A Study in Comparative Ecology. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, USA.

Van Roosmalen, M. G. M. 2003. New species from Amazonia. Available at:

Wallace, R. B. and Painter, R. L. E. 1999. A new primate record for Bolivia: An apparently isolated population of common woolly monkeys representing a southern range extension for the genus Lagothrix. Neotropical Primates 7(4): 111–112.

Wallace, R. B., Painter, R. L. E., Taber, A. B. and Ayres, J. M. 1996. Notes on a distributional river boundary and southern range extension for two species of Amazonian primates. Neotropical Primates 4: 149-151.

Citation: Boubli, J.-P., Di Fiore, A., Rylands, A.B. & Wallace, R.B. 2008. Lagothrix cana. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T39925A10288721. . Downloaded on 16 January 2017.
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