Trachypithecus germaini 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Primates Cercopithecidae

Scientific Name: Trachypithecus germaini
Species Authority: (Milne-Edwards, 1876)
Common Name(s):
English Indochinese Lutung, Germain’s Langur, Germain’s Silver Langur, Indochinese Silvered Langur
Trachypithecus koratensis (Kloss, 1919)
Trachypithecus mandibularis (Kloss, 1916)
Trachypithecus margarita (Elliot, 1909)
Taxonomic Notes: Trachypithecus germaini has been considered synonymous with T. cristatus in the past, but is here regarded as distinct following recent classifications (Groves 2001, 2005). Recent genetic evidence suggests that the form margarita could be considered a distinct species, with Silvered Langurs west of the Mekong representing T. germaini and those east of the Mekong being T. margarita (Nadler et al. 2005). However, the taxonomic and geographic limits between the two taxa are not well defined (and there are records of forms apparently attributable to germaini east of the Mekong; R. Timmins pers. comm.), and pending further taxonomic work to help elucidate the taxonomic and geographic boundaries of the forms, we tentatively follow the classification of Groves (2005) in including margarita in germaini. Groves (2001, 2005) also recognized the subspecies T. g. caudalis, apparently from northern Viet Nam, as distinct, noting 'The syntypes of this subspecies had been living in the Botanic Gardens of Hanoi and were of unknown origin... I have seen similar specimens in the USNM from Nongkor, Sriracha and also a skin labeled "Hainan"'.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered A2cd ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-06-30
Assessor(s): Nadler, T., Timmins, R.J. & Richardson, M.
Reviewer(s): Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority)
Listed as Endangered as it is believed to have undergone a decline exceeding 50% over the past 36 years (3 generations, given a generation length of 12 years) due to a combination of habitat loss and hunting pressure.
Previously published Red List assessments:
2000 Data Deficient (DD)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: The precise limits of distribution of this species are unclear. It is reliably recorded from Cambodia, Viet Nam, and from southern Lao PDR, where Duckworth et al. (1999) reported them as far north as about 15.4°N. To the west of this, they extend to Kanchamburi Province in southern Thailand right to the Bay of Bengal in Myanmar, as Groves (2001) notes intersecting between the distributions of T. obscurus and T. phayrei. Records from Assam and elsewhere in north-east India, which have been attributed to this species, presumably relate to another species and indeed it is not mentioned as part of the range of this species by Groves (2005).
Countries occurrence:
Cambodia; Lao People's Democratic Republic; Myanmar; Thailand; Viet Nam
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: This is a widespread but very rare species throughout most of its range (Nadler et al. 2003). The apparently extremely low density of this species in Viet Nam suggests that the population has been seriously reduced due to human pressure (Nadler et al. 2003). There are only a few sightings documented in that country over the last 50 years, though this may be a result of limited surveys conducted in the species' range (Nadler et al. 2003). It has been recorded in Cat Tien National Park but its relative abundance is not as high as douc langurs (Pygathrix spp.). In Lao PDR, it is probably localized though possibly common in a small number of areas; however, no large continuous area is known to support high populations (Duckworth et al. 1999). It is widespread in Cambodia, and, in certain areas (such as the lowlands of northern Mondulkiri) it may be the most common primate; in other areas, it is surprisingly rare or uncommon (R. Timmins pers. comm.). In Thailand the taxon is moderately common in several protected areas, but has declined significantly (W. Brockelmann pers. comm.). In Kien Giang Province (confirmed germaini), five or six limestone hills have significant remaining populations. Overall, the impression is one of a significantly declining population.
Current Population Trend: Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This is primarily a lowland species, with a preference for evergreen and semi-evergreen, mixed deciduous, riverine and gallery forest. Records in hilly areas or at higher elevations are few.
Systems: Terrestrial

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The major threats to this species are hunting, mainly for subsistence use and traditional “medicine”, the pet trade and habitat loss, mainly due to agricultural expansion.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is listed on CITES Appendix II. It has been recorded from Phu Quoc National Park (Viet Nam), and probably still occurs in Cat Tien National Park (Viet Nam), and it occurs in several protected areas in Thailand. Further survey and taxonomic work is needed to elucidate and better understand the population status and limits of distribution of this species, and especially to resolve the status of the form margarita relative to germaini.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.5. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
1. Land/water protection -> 1.2. Resource & habitat protection
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
3. Species management -> 3.1. Species management -> 3.1.1. Harvest management
4. Education & awareness -> 4.3. Awareness & communications
5. Law & policy -> 5.1. Legislation -> 5.1.2. National level
5. Law & policy -> 5.4. Compliance and enforcement -> 5.4.2. National level

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
  Included in international legislation:Yes
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:Yes
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.1. Housing & urban areas
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.1. Shifting agriculture
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.2. Small-holder farming
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.5. Motivation Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Research -> 1.1. Taxonomy
1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
1. Research -> 1.6. Actions
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

♦  Food - human
 Local : ✓ 

♦  Medicine - human & veterinary
 Local : ✓   National : ✓ 

♦  Pets/display animals, horticulture
 Local : ✓   National : ✓ 

Bibliography [top]

Dao, V. 1977. Sur quelques rares mammiferes au nord du Vietnam. Mitteilungen aus dem Zoologischen Museum in Berlin 53: 325 – 330.

Duckworth, J.W., Salter, R.E. and Khounbline, K. 1999. Wildlife in Lao PDR: 1999 Status Report. IUCN, Vientiane, Laos.

Groves, C. P. 2001. Primate taxonomy. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA.

Groves, C.P. 2005. Order Primates. In: D.E. Wilson and D.M. Reeder (eds), Mammal Species of the World, pp. 111-184. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Nadler, T., Momberg, F., Nguyen Xuan Dang and Lormée, N. 2003. Vietnam Primate Conservation Status Review 2002. Part 2: Leaf Monkeys. Fauna and Flora International- Vietnam Program and Frankfurt Zoological Society, Hanoi, Vietnam.

Nadler, T., Streicher, U. and Ha Thang Long. 2004. Conservation of primates in Vietnam. Haki Publishing, Hanoi, Vietnam.

Nadler, T., Walter, L. and Roos, C. 2005. Molecular evolution, systematics and distribution of the taxa within the silvered langur species group (Trachypithecus [cristatus]) in Southeast Asia. Zoologische Garten 75: 238-247.

Citation: Nadler, T., Timmins, R.J. & Richardson, M. 2008. Trachypithecus germaini. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T39874A10278272. . Downloaded on 01 December 2015.
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