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Semnopithecus hypoleucos 

Scope:Global
Status_ne_offStatus_dd_offStatus_lc_offStatus_nt_offStatus_vu_onStatus_en_offStatus_cr_offStatus_ew_offStatus_ex_off

Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Primates Cercopithecidae

Scientific Name: Semnopithecus hypoleucos
Species Authority: Blyth, 1841
Common Name(s):
English Black-footed Gray Langur, Dark-legged Malabar Langur, Malabar Sacred Langur
Synonym(s):
Semnopithecus aeneas (Pocock, 1928)
Semnopithecus entellus (Blyth, 1841) ssp. hypoleucos
Taxonomic Notes: This taxon was formerly considered a subspecies of Semnopithecus entellus. Recent investigations by Brandon-Jones seemed to indicate the S. hypoleucos population as part of S. dussumieri (Molur et al. 2003; Brandon-Jones 2004). Some experts believe this species to be merely a natural hybrid between Nilgiri Langur (Trachypithecus johnii) and S. dussumieri (Molur et al. 2003).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable A2d ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-06-30
Assessor(s): Singh, M. & Molur, S.
Reviewer(s): Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority)
Justification:
The species is listed as Vulnerable based on a predicted decline of at least 30% over the next three generations (approximately 30 years) as a result of over-hunting.
Previously published Red List assessments:
  • 2000 – Data Deficient (DD)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species occurs in south-western India (Goa, Karnataka and Kerala), centred on the Western Ghats. It is found from Molem in Goa in the north to the periphery of Silent Valley in the south. The total range covers over 35,000 km2, with the species occurring both in and outside of protected areas.
Countries occurrence:
Native:
India
Additional data:
Lower elevation limit (metres):100
Upper elevation limit (metres):1200
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:The total population size is unknown, and current decline is not known, yet it is predicted to decline by more than 10% in the next 10 years (Molur et al. 2003). In some areas (south of Bhadra Wildlife Sanctuary), hunting is serious and the population is expected to decline (M. Singh pers. comm.). The species has been extirpated from the eastern slopes of the Brahmagiri Hills in Coorg (except in Nagarahole National Park) due to hunting pressures (S. Molur pers. comm.)
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This species is found in tropical rainforest, moist deciduous forest, sacred groves, gardens, and riparian forest, from 100 to 1,200 m in elevation (Molur et al. 2003). It is unusual among Semnopithecus species in that it is a specialized wet forest form (Groves pers. comm.). This species is arboreal, semi-terrestrial, primarily folivorous, and diurnal (Molur et al. 2003).
Systems:Terrestrial

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): In the past, expanding timber plantations were threats; in the present and future, threats include agriculture, human settlement, fragmentation, habitat loss, mining, deforestation, hunting, deliberate fires, and local trade for live animals and meat for food and traditional medicine (Molur et al. 2003). Hunting is considered the most serious threat to the taxon.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is listed on CITES Appendix I, and Schedule II, Part II, Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972 amended up to 2002 (Molur et al. 2003). In Karnataka it occurs in the Bhadra Sanctuary, Brahmagiri Sanctuary, Kudremukh National Park, Nagarahole National Park, Pushpagiri Sanctuary, Sharavathi Valley Sanctuary (Molur et al. 2003), and in Kerala in the Aralam Sanctuary and Wayanad Sanctuary.

Moluret al. (2003) list the following areas in need of research: taxonomy (on captive animals also), life history, survey, ecology and behavior. The following management actions are needed: habitat management, monitoring, and Population and Habitat Viability Assessment.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
1. Forest -> 1.9. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane
suitability: Suitable  major importance:No
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.4. Artificial/Terrestrial - Rural Gardens
suitability: Suitable  major importance:No
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
1. Land/water protection -> 1.2. Resource & habitat protection
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
3. Species management -> 3.1. Species management -> 3.1.1. Harvest management
4. Education & awareness -> 4.3. Awareness & communications
5. Law & policy -> 5.4. Compliance and enforcement -> 5.4.2. National level

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
  Subject to ex-situ conservation:Yes
In-Place Education
  Included in international legislation:Yes
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:Yes
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.1. Housing & urban areas
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.1. Shifting agriculture
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.2. Small-holder farming
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.2. Wood & pulp plantations -> 2.2.1. Small-holder plantations
♦ timing: Past, Unlikely to Return    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.2. Wood & pulp plantations -> 2.2.2. Agro-industry plantations
♦ timing: Past, Unlikely to Return    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

3. Energy production & mining -> 3.2. Mining & quarrying
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.5. Motivation Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

7. Natural system modifications -> 7.1. Fire & fire suppression -> 7.1.3. Trend Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Research -> 1.1. Taxonomy
1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
1. Research -> 1.6. Actions
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

♦  Food - human
 Local : ✓ 

♦  Medicine - human & veterinary
 Local : ✓ 

Bibliography [top]

Brandon-Jones, D. 2004. A taxonomic revision of the langurs and leaf monkeys (primates: Colobinae) of South Asia. Zoos' Print Journal 19(8): 1552–1594.

Groves, C.P. 2001. Primate Taxonomy. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA.

Molur, S., Brandon-Jones, D., Dittus, W., Eudey, A., Kumar, A., Singh, M., Feeroz, M. M., Chalise, M., Priya, P. and Walker, S. 2003. Status of South Asian Primates: Conservation Assessment and Managment Plan Report. Workshop Report, 2003. Zoo Outreach Organization/CBSG-South Asia, Coimbatore, India.


Citation: Singh, M. & Molur, S. 2008. Semnopithecus hypoleucos. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T39838A10275235. . Downloaded on 27 July 2016.
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