Semnopithecus hector 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Primates Cercopithecidae

Scientific Name: Semnopithecus hector
Species Authority: (Pocock, 1928)
Common Name(s):
English Tarai Gray Langur, Lesser Hill Langur, Hanuman Langur, Gray Langur, Tarai Sacred Langur
Semnopithecus entellus (Pocock, 1928) subspecies hector
Taxonomic Notes: This taxon was formerly considered a subspecies of Semnopithecus entellus.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Near Threatened ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-06-30
Assessor(s): Molur, S. & Chhangani, A.
Reviewer(s): Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority)
The species is listed as Near Threatened, as there are probably not many more than 10,000 mature individuals, and it is experiencing a continuing decline. Almost qualifies for listing as threatened under criterion C2a(i).
Previously published Red List assessments:
2004 Endangered (EN)
2000 Lower Risk/near threatened (LR/nt)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species occurs in Bhutan, northern India (Uttaranachal, Uttar Pradesh, and West Bengal), and Nepal. It is found in the Himalayan foothills from Rajaji National Park (Uttaranchal) in the west to near Pankhabari (southwestern Bhutan) in the east, and throughout in between (Brandon-Jones 2004).
Countries occurrence:
Bhutan; India; Nepal
Lower elevation limit (metres): 150
Upper elevation limit (metres): 1600
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The population numbers are not known. It has avery patchy distribution due to human settlements and habitat loss. A continuing decline has been observed in extent, area and quality of habitat, and inferred in locations and mature individuals.
Current Population Trend: Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented: Yes

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This species is found in a variety of habitats, such as moist deciduous forest of the Siwaliks, to oak forest in higher altitudes (A. Kumar pers. comm.). It ranges from 150 m to 1,600 m in elevation (Molur et al. 2003). It is arboreal, mainly terrestrial, diurnal, folivorous, and occurs in multi-male multi-female groups (Molur et al. 2003). It has been observed feeding in orchards and crop fields outside of Rajaji National Park (A. Chhangani pers. comm.).
Systems: Terrestrial

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Molur et al. (2003) list the following threats: mining, firewood and charcoal collection and production, timber collection, and land distribution (resettlement) for landless people. Loss of habitat, urbanization, and electrocution by power lines are other threats identified for this species.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is listed on CITES Appendix I, and the Nepal National Park and Wildlife Conservation Act (1973) lists it as a common animal (Molur et al. 2003). Occurrence in protected areas and in captivity are difficult to determine owing to taxonomic uncertainty (M. Richardson pers. comm.), though it is known to occur in Rajaji National Park and Valmiki Sanctuary (A. Chhangani pers. comm.).

Molur et al. (2003) list the following areas in need of research: taxonomy, life history, survey studies, and limiting factor research. The following management actions are needed: habitat management, wild population management, monitoring, and public education.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.5. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
1. Forest -> 1.9. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.3. Artificial/Terrestrial - Plantations
suitability: Marginal  
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.4. Artificial/Terrestrial - Rural Gardens
suitability: Marginal  
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
4. Education & awareness -> 4.1. Formal education
4. Education & awareness -> 4.3. Awareness & communications

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
  Included in international legislation:Yes
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:Yes
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.1. Housing & urban areas
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.2. Small-holder farming
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

3. Energy production & mining -> 3.2. Mining & quarrying
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

4. Transportation & service corridors -> 4.2. Utility & service lines
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.5. Motivation Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

7. Natural system modifications -> 7.3. Other ecosystem modifications
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Research -> 1.1. Taxonomy
1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
1. Research -> 1.6. Actions
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

Bibliography [top]

Brandon-Jones, D. 2004. A taxonomic revision of the langurs and leaf monkeys (primates: Colobinae) of South Asia. Zoos’ Print Journal 19(8): 1552–1594.

Groves, C. P. 2001. Primate taxonomy. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA.

Johnsingh, A.J.T., Qureshi, Q., Goyal, S.P., Rawat, G.S., Ramesh, K., David, A., Rajapandian, K. and Prasad, S. 2004. Conservation Status of Tiger and Associated Species in the Terai Arc Landscape, India.

Molur, S., Brandon-Jones, D., Dittus, W., Eudey, A., Kumar, A., Singh, M., Feeroz, M. M., Chalise, M., Priya, P. and Walker, S. 2003. Status of South Asian Primates: Conservation Assessment and Managment Plan Report. Workshop Report, 2003. Zoo Outreach Organization/CBSG-South Asia, Coimbatore, India.

Citation: Molur, S. & Chhangani, A. 2008. Semnopithecus hector. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T39837A10274974. . Downloaded on 26 November 2015.
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