|Scientific Name:||Semnopithecus hector|
|Species Authority:||(Pocock, 1928)|
Semnopithecus entellus (Pocock, 1928) subspecies hector
|Taxonomic Notes:||This taxon was formerly considered a subspecies of Semnopithecus entellus.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Near Threatened ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Molur, S. & Chhangani, A.|
|Reviewer(s):||Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority)|
The species is listed as Near Threatened, as there are probably not many more than 10,000 mature individuals, and it is experiencing a continuing decline. Almost qualifies for listing as threatened under criterion C2a(i).
|Range Description:||This species occurs in Bhutan, northern India (Uttaranachal, Uttar Pradesh, and West Bengal), and Nepal. It is found in the Himalayan foothills from Rajaji National Park (Uttaranchal) in the west to near Pankhabari (southwestern Bhutan) in the east, and throughout in between (Brandon-Jones 2004).|
Native:Bhutan; India; Nepal
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The population numbers are not known. It has avery patchy distribution due to human settlements and habitat loss. A continuing decline has been observed in extent, area and quality of habitat, and inferred in locations and mature individuals.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This species is found in a variety of habitats, such as moist deciduous forest of the Siwaliks, to oak forest in higher altitudes (A. Kumar pers. comm.). It ranges from 150 m to 1,600 m in elevation (Molur et al. 2003). It is arboreal, mainly terrestrial, diurnal, folivorous, and occurs in multi-male multi-female groups (Molur et al. 2003). It has been observed feeding in orchards and crop fields outside of Rajaji National Park (A. Chhangani pers. comm.).|
|Major Threat(s):||Molur et al. (2003) list the following threats: mining, firewood and charcoal collection and production, timber collection, and land distribution (resettlement) for landless people. Loss of habitat, urbanization, and electrocution by power lines are other threats identified for this species.|
This species is listed on CITES Appendix I, and the Nepal National Park and Wildlife Conservation Act (1973) lists it as a common animal (Molur et al. 2003). Occurrence in protected areas and in captivity are difficult to determine owing to taxonomic uncertainty (M. Richardson pers. comm.), though it is known to occur in Rajaji National Park and Valmiki Sanctuary (A. Chhangani pers. comm.).
Molur et al. (2003) list the following areas in need of research: taxonomy, life history, survey studies, and limiting factor research. The following management actions are needed: habitat management, wild population management, monitoring, and public education.
Brandon-Jones, D. 2004. A taxonomic revision of the langurs and leaf monkeys (primates: Colobinae) of South Asia. Zoos’ Print Journal 19(8): 1552–1594.
Groves, C. P. 2001. Primate taxonomy. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA.
Johnsingh, A. J. T., Qureshi, Q., Goyal, S. P., Rawat, G. S., Ramesh, K., David, A., Rajapandian, K. and Prasad, S. 2004. Conservation Status of Tiger and Associated Species in the Terai Arc Landscape, India.
Molur, S., Brandon-Jones, D., Dittus, W., Eudey, A., Kumar, A., Singh, M., Feeroz, M. M., Chalise, M., Priya, P. and Walker, S. 2003. Status of South Asian Primates: Conservation Assessment and Managment Plan Report. Workshop Report, 2003. Zoo Outreach Organization/CBSG-South Asia, Coimbatore, India.
|Citation:||Molur, S. & Chhangani, A. 2008. Semnopithecus hector. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 19 December 2014.|