Pygathrix cinerea 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Primates Cercopithecidae

Scientific Name: Pygathrix cinerea
Species Authority: Nadler, 1997
Common Name(s):
English Grey-shanked Douc Langur, Gray-shanked Douc Monkey
Pygathrix nemaeus Nadler, 1997 ssp. cinerea
Taxonomic Notes: In the past this taxon has been considered either a subspecies of P. nemaeus, or a hybrid of P. nemaeus and P. nigripes (Nadler 1995). Further studies on the genetics of doucs show that P. cinerea and P. nemaeus are sister taxa (Roos and Nadler 2001). There is strong evidence that this taxon hybridizes with Red-shanked Doucs (P. nemaeus) in a small sympatric distribution area of Quang Nam Province (Nadler 1997, Nadler and Roos in press).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Critically Endangered A2cd+3cd+4cd ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-06-30
Assessor(s): Ngoc Thanh, V., Lippold, L., Nadler, T. & Timmins, R.J.
Reviewer(s): Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority)
Listed as Critically Endangered as the population is declining at over 80% in the entire distribution range due to several threats, and the decline is predicted to continue at the same rate or slightly higher in the next 30-36 years (approximately three generations).
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species occurs in central Viet Nam, in Quang Nam, Quang Ngai, Binh Dinh, Kon Tum, and Gia Lai provinces (Nadler et al. 2003; Ha Thang Long 2004).
Countries occurrence:
Viet Nam
Additional data:
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:The total population for this species is estimated at 550 to 700 individuals, but some areas with assumed occurrence are not yet surveyed (Ha Thang Long 2004).
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This species occurs in evergreen and semi-evergreen primary and highly degraded forest. Like the other doucs, Pygathrix cinerea is largely arboreal and mainly folivorous, though plant buds, fruit, seeds, and flowers are also taken (Nadler et al. 2003).

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The Viet Namese Central Highland forests where these animals occur lose almost 10,000 ha of forest annually due to logging and agricultural conversion. This creates a progressively more fragmented habitat and population structure. Additionally, they are hunted for food, traditional "medicine" (for example it is used in the preparation of "monkey balm"), and for sale as pets (Ha Thanh Long 2004). Their behavioural responses to hunting, hiding motionless in the canopy rather than fleeing, make them more vulnerable (Nadler et al. 2003); they also become susceptible to snaring when they come to the ground to move in degraded habitats.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is listed in CITES Appendix I, and listed on Appendix 1B of Decree 32 (2006) in Viet Nam. The species occurs in several protected areas in Viet Nam, especially Song Thanh, Ngoc Linh, Kon Kai Kinh, and Kon Cha Rang; however, protection against hunting and habitat disturbance is not completely enforced (Ha Thanh Long 2004). A long-term study in Gia Lai Province included in the "Viet Nam Primate Conservation Program" of the Frankfurt Zoological Society is currently in place (Ha Thanh Long 2004), and additional surveys in the distribution area are also included in the program, which may perhaps identify new populations. There is an ongoing captive-breeding program for this species at the Endangered Primate Rescue Center at Cuc Phuong National Park in Viet Nam, which also incorporates an education component.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
1. Forest -> 1.9. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.6. Artificial/Terrestrial - Subtropical/Tropical Heavily Degraded Former Forest
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
1. Land/water protection -> 1.2. Resource & habitat protection
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
3. Species management -> 3.1. Species management -> 3.1.1. Harvest management
3. Species management -> 3.4. Ex-situ conservation -> 3.4.1. Captive breeding/artificial propagation
4. Education & awareness -> 4.3. Awareness & communications
5. Law & policy -> 5.4. Compliance and enforcement -> 5.4.2. National level

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
  Subject to ex-situ conservation:Yes
In-Place Education
  Subject to recent education and awareness programmes:Yes
  Included in international legislation:Yes
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:Yes
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.1. Housing & urban areas
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.1. Shifting agriculture
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.2. Small-holder farming
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

4. Transportation & service corridors -> 4.1. Roads & railroads
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.5. Motivation Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
1. Research -> 1.6. Actions
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

♦  Food - human
 Local : ✓   National : ✓ 

♦  Medicine - human & veterinary
 Local : ✓   National : ✓ 

♦  Pets/display animals, horticulture
 Local : ✓   National : ✓ 

Bibliography [top]

Groves C. 2001. Primate Taxonomy. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA.

Ha Thanh Long. 2004. Distribution and status of grey-shanked douc langur (Pygthrix cinerea) in Vietnam. In: T. Nadler, U. Streicher and Ha Thang Long (eds), Conservation of primates in Vietnam, pp. 52-57. Frankfurt Zoological Society, Hanoi, Vietnam.

Lippold, L. and Vu Ngoc Thanh. 1995. Douc langur variety in the central highlands of Vietnam. Asian Primates 5(1-2): 6–8.

Lippold, L. and Vu Ngoc Thanh. 1999. Distribution of the grey-shanked douc langur in Vietnam. Asian Primates 7(1-2): 1-3.

Lippold, L. and Vu Ngoc Thanh. 2002. The grey-shanked douc: survey results from Tien Phuoc, Quang Nam, Viet Nam. Asian Primates 8(1-2): 3-6.

Nadler, T. 1995. Douc langur Pygathrix nemaeus ssp. and Francois' langur Trachypithecus francoisi ssp. with questionable taxonomic status in the Endangered Primate Rescue Center, Vietnam. Asian Primates 5(1-2): 1, 8-10.

Nadler, T. 1997. A new subspecies of Douc langur, Pygathrix nemaeus cinereus ssp. nov. Zoologische Garten 4: 165-176.

Nadler, T., Momberg, F., Nguyen, X., Dang and Lormee, N. 2003. Leaf monkeys: Vietnam Primate Conservation Status Review 2002 part 2.

Roos, C. and Nadler, T. 2001. Molecular evolution of the Douc Langurs. Zoologische Garten 71(1): 1-6.

Citation: Ngoc Thanh, V., Lippold, L., Nadler, T. & Timmins, R.J. 2008. Pygathrix cinerea. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T39827A10273229. . Downloaded on 20 January 2017.
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