|Scientific Name:||Macaca siberu|
|Species Authority:||Fuentes & Olson, 1995|
Macaca pagensis Fuentes & Olson, 1995 subspecies siberu
|Taxonomic Notes:||This taxon is considered a distinct species by Kitchener and Groves (2002).|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Vulnerable A2cd ver 3.1|
|Assessor/s:||Whittaker, D. & Mittermeier, R.A.|
|Reviewer/s:||Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority)|
The species is considered Vulnerable due to a past and continued population decline, estimated at more that 30% over the past 40 years (approximately 3 generations) due to hunting and loss of habitat.
|Range Description:||This species is endemic to Siberut, one of the Mentawai Islands off the west coast of Sumatra (Roos et al. 2003).|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The total population is estimated to be between 17,000 and 30,000, down from 39,000 in 1980 (Whittaker 2006). They have higher densities in logged than unlogged forest, and reach their highest densities in forest logged 20 years ago (Paciulli 2004).|
|Habitat and Ecology:||It is found in both primary and disturbed areas (Whitten and Whitten 1982; Fuentes 1996/1997), preferring primary riverine coastal swamp forest (Wilson and Wilson 1976). It is primarily frugivorous (Whitten and Whitten 1982).|
|Major Threat(s):||This species is threatened mainly by hunting and commercial logging (Whittaker 2006), as well as by conversion to oil palm plantations, and forest clearing and product extraction by local people (Whittaker 2006). Recently, hunting pressure has increased because of improved access to remote areas due to logging roads and tracks, as well as the replacement of bows and arrows with .177 caliber air rifles (anything larger is illegal in Indonesia) (Whittaker 2006). Also, local rituals and taboos that formerly regulated hunting have been replaced by Christianity (Whittaker 2006). The pet trade is also a threat (Whittaker 2006). Though this species is not a preferred food item, it is still hunted and poisoned as it is considered a crop pest (Whittaker 2006). While habitat disturbance appears to positively affect population densities, it is found in lower densities near human settlements (Whittaker 2006).|
This species is listed on CITES Appendix II, but its legal protection in Indonesia is questionable as it is a new species. It occurs in one protected area, Siberut National Park. There are no specimens in captivity.
Whittaker (2006) suggests the following conservation actions: increased protection for Siberut National Park, which currently lacks enforcement, formal protection of the Peleonan forest in North Siberut, which is home to unusually high primate populations and is easily accessible, conservation education, especially regarding hunting, and the development of alternative economic models for the local people to reduce the likelihood of selling off their lands to logging companies.
Fuentes, A. 1997. Current status and future viability for the Mentawai primates. Primate Conservation 17: 111-116.
Fuentes, A. and Olson, M. 1995. Preliminary observations and status of the Pagai macaque. Asian Primates 4(4): 1-4.
Groves, C. P. 2001. Primate taxonomy. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA.
Kitchener, A. C. and Groves, C. P. 2002. New insight into the taxonomy of Macaca pagensis of the Mentawai Islands, Sumatra. Mammalia 66: 533-542.
Paciulli, L. 2004. The effects of logging, hunting, and vegetation on the densities of the Pagai, Mentawai Islands primates. Thesis, State University of New York.
Roos, C., Ziegler, T., Hodges, J. K., Zischler, H. and Abegg, C. 2003. Molecular phylogeny of Mentawai macaques: taxonomic and biogeographical implications. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 29(1): 139-150.
Whittaker, D. 2006. A conservation action plan for the Mentawai primates. Primate Conservation 20: 95-105.
Whitten, A. J. and Whitten, J. E. J. 1982. Preliminary observations of the Mentawai macaque on Siberut Island, Indonesia. International Journal of Primatology 3: 445-459.
Wilson, C. C. and Wilson, W. L. 1977. Behavioral and morphological variation among primate populations in Sumatra. Yearbook of Physical Anthropology 20: 207-233.
|Citation:||Whittaker, D. & Mittermeier, R.A. 2008. Macaca siberu. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 24 April 2014.|
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