Macaca siberu 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Primates Cercopithecidae

Scientific Name: Macaca siberu
Species Authority: Fuentes & Olson, 1995
Common Name(s):
English Siberut Macaque
Macaca pagensis Fuentes & Olson, 1995 subspecies siberu
Taxonomic Notes: This taxon is considered a distinct species by Kitchener and Groves (2002).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable A2cd ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-06-30
Assessor(s): Whittaker, D. & Mittermeier, R.A.
Reviewer(s): Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority)
The species is considered Vulnerable due to a past and continued population decline, estimated at more that 30% over the past 40 years (approximately 3 generations) due to hunting and loss of habitat.
Previously published Red List assessments:
2000 Critically Endangered (CR)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species is endemic to Siberut, one of the Mentawai Islands off the west coast of Sumatra (Roos et al. 2003).
Countries occurrence:
Indonesia (Sumatera)
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The total population is estimated to be between 17,000 and 30,000, down from 39,000 in 1980 (Whittaker 2006). They have higher densities in logged than unlogged forest, and reach their highest densities in forest logged 20 years ago (Paciulli 2004).
Current Population Trend: Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: It is found in both primary and disturbed areas (Whitten and Whitten 1982; Fuentes 1996/1997), preferring primary riverine coastal swamp forest (Wilson and Wilson 1976). It is primarily frugivorous (Whitten and Whitten 1982).
Systems: Terrestrial

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): This species is threatened mainly by hunting and commercial logging (Whittaker 2006), as well as by conversion to oil palm plantations, and forest clearing and product extraction by local people (Whittaker 2006). Recently, hunting pressure has increased because of improved access to remote areas due to logging roads and tracks, as well as the replacement of bows and arrows with .177 caliber air rifles (anything larger is illegal in Indonesia) (Whittaker 2006). Also, local rituals and taboos that formerly regulated hunting have been replaced by Christianity (Whittaker 2006). The pet trade is also a threat (Whittaker 2006). Though this species is not a preferred food item, it is still hunted and poisoned as it is considered a crop pest (Whittaker 2006). While habitat disturbance appears to positively affect population densities, it is found in lower densities near human settlements (Whittaker 2006).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is listed on CITES Appendix II, but its legal protection in Indonesia is questionable as it is a new species. It occurs in one protected area, Siberut National Park. There are no specimens in captivity.

Whittaker (2006) suggests the following conservation actions: increased protection for Siberut National Park, which currently lacks enforcement, formal protection of the Peleonan forest in North Siberut, which is home to unusually high primate populations and is easily accessible, conservation education, especially regarding hunting, and the development of alternative economic models for the local people to reduce the likelihood of selling off their lands to logging companies.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
1. Forest -> 1.7. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Mangrove Vegetation Above High Tide Level
suitability: Unknown  
1. Forest -> 1.8. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Swamp
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
1. Land/water protection -> 1.2. Resource & habitat protection
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
3. Species management -> 3.1. Species management -> 3.1.1. Harvest management
4. Education & awareness -> 4.1. Formal education
4. Education & awareness -> 4.2. Training
4. Education & awareness -> 4.3. Awareness & communications
5. Law & policy -> 5.1. Legislation -> 5.1.2. National level
5. Law & policy -> 5.4. Compliance and enforcement -> 5.4.2. National level

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
  Included in international legislation:Yes
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:Yes
2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.2. Small-holder farming
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.3. Agro-industry farming
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.2. Wood & pulp plantations -> 2.2.2. Agro-industry plantations
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.3. Persecution/control
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.5. Motivation Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
1. Research -> 1.6. Actions
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

♦  Food - human
 Local : ✓ 

♦  Pets/display animals, horticulture
 Local : ✓   National : ✓ 

Bibliography [top]

Fuentes, A. 1997. Current status and future viability for the Mentawai primates. Primate Conservation 17: 111-116.

Fuentes, A. and Olson, M. 1995. Preliminary observations and status of the Pagai macaque. Asian Primates 4(4): 1-4.

Groves, C. P. 2001. Primate taxonomy. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA.

Kitchener, A. C. and Groves, C. P. 2002. New insight into the taxonomy of Macaca pagensis of the Mentawai Islands, Sumatra. Mammalia 66: 533-542.

Paciulli, L. 2004. The effects of logging, hunting, and vegetation on the densities of the Pagai, Mentawai Islands primates. Thesis, State University of New York.

Roos, C., Ziegler, T., Hodges, J. K., Zischler, H. and Abegg, C. 2003. Molecular phylogeny of Mentawai macaques: taxonomic and biogeographical implications. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 29(1): 139-150.

Whittaker, D. 2006. A conservation action plan for the Mentawai primates. Primate Conservation 20: 95-105.

Whitten, A. J. and Whitten, J. E. J. 1982. Preliminary observations of the Mentawai macaque on Siberut Island, Indonesia. International Journal of Primatology 3: 445-459.

Wilson, C. C. and Wilson, W. L. 1977. Behavioral and morphological variation among primate populations in Sumatra. Yearbook of Physical Anthropology 20: 207-233.

Citation: Whittaker, D. & Mittermeier, R.A. 2008. Macaca siberu. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T39795A10258847. . Downloaded on 27 November 2015.
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