Nycticebus menagensis


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family

Scientific Name: Nycticebus menagensis
Species Authority: Trouessart, 1893
Common Name(s):
English Bornean Slow Loris
Nycticebus bancanus Lyon, 1906
Nycticebus borneanus Lyon, 1906
Nycticebus coucang Trouessart, 1893 subspecies menagensis
Nycticebus philippinus Cabrera, 1908
Taxonomic Notes: This taxon was formerly considered a subspecies of Nycticebus coucang, but was elevated to species level by Roos (2003) and Chen et al. (2006). See also Nekaris and Jaffe (2007). The smallest of the Indonesian slow lorises, it is not only distinguished genetically from the others, but also by its pale golden to red fur, virtual lack of markings on its head, and consistent absence of a second upper incisor (Groves 1971, 1998; Ravosa 1998; Chen et al. 2006; Nekaris and Jaffe 2007).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable A2cd+3cd ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-06-30
Assessor(s): Nekaris, A. & Streicher, U.
Reviewer(s): Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority)
Listed as Vulnerable as there has probably been more than a 30% reduction in population over three generations (approximately 21-24 years) based on harvesting for the pet trade and extensive habitat loss.
2000 Data Deficient

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species is found in Brunei, Indonesia (Kalimantan Borneo, Belitung and Banka), Malaysia (Sabah and Sarawak Borneo) and the Philippines (Tawi Tawi, Bongao, Sangasanga, and perhaps some other small islands in the Sulu Archipelago) (Fooden 1991; Timm and Birney 1992). Ethnographic survey records suggest local extinction in some islands in the Tawi Tawi group (Philippines), though the species is still likely to be found on smaller islands (Garcia pers. comm. 2006).
Brunei Darussalam; Indonesia; Malaysia; Philippines
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: Based on data collected from researchers in the field and old specimens from museum collections, Meijaard et al. (2005) claimed that this species is common throughout Borneo. However, loris "presence" is usually not determined first-hand (Chivers and Burton 1988; Indrawan and Rangkuti 2001), and it also cannot be presumed that lorises still occur in areas from where they were once collected. The species actually seems to be very uncommon throughout its range. It has a very limited distribution in the Philippines (Dagosto and Gebo 1995; Heaney et al. 1998). In Kalimantan, a 3-month survey in a protected peat swamp forest (Sabangau National Park) revealed very low densities of slow lorises, 0.21 - 0.38 animals/km (Nekaris et al. in review). When comparing this to other studies of Nycticebus, it seems clear that this species, when it does occur, is rare. Indeed, in 46,000 trapping nights in Kinabalu National Park, Wells et al. (2004) trapped this species only 3 times, and noted that in nocturnal walks over five years, it was rarely seen.
Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: The species occurs in primary and secondary lowland forest, gardens, and plantations (Payne et al. 1985; Timm and Birney 1992), at elevations between 35-100 m. According to interviews with local people in the Philippines, the species tends to be sighted in citrus trees (calamansi) (Garcia pers. comm. 2006) and may be tolerant of a variety of habitats. It is nocturnal, and almost entirely arboreal. In Sabangau National Park, of four sightings of lorises, 50% contained two or more individuals, feeding together in the same tree (Callophylum hosei and Szygium cf. nigricans).
Systems: Terrestrial

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Burning of habitat and conversion, especially to palm oil plantations, almost certainly represents a threat to this species. Although it is relatively adaptable to anthropogenic habitats, and so it might less affected by forest loss than some other primate species, forest loss has been so severe in the region that it is likely to have had some negative impacts. The species is collected locally for use as pets; subsequent uncontrolled release of pets in some areas is also a threat.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is included in Appendix I of CITES and is protected by Indonesian law. Surveys to study the status of all populations, including those from the Philippines and other small Indonesian islands are required. Some forest fragments where the species occur remain protected. There is a particular need for field guides for this and other nocturnal Indonesian primate species, as they are often confused in rescue centers and elsewhere. The species occurs in a number of protected areas throughout its range, though its status there is uncertain (Nekaris et al. 2008).

Bibliography [top]

Cabrera, A. 1908. Sobre los loris, y en especial sobre la forma Filipina. Boletín de la Real Sociedad Española de Historia Natural. Madrid 8(3): 135?139.

Chasen, F. 1935. On a collection of mammals from the Natuna Islands. Bulletin of the Raffles Museum, Singapore 10: 5-42.

Chen, J-H., Pan, D., Groves, C., Wang, Y.-X., Narushima, E., Fitch-Snyder, H., Crow, P., Thanh, V., Ryder, O., Zhang, H.-W., Fu, Y. and Zhang, Y. 2006. Molecular phylogeny of Nycticebus inferred from mitochondrial genes. International Journal of Primatology 27(4): 1187-1200.

Chivers, D. and Burton, K. 1988. Some observations on the primates of Kalimantan Tengah, Indonesia. Primate Conservation 9: 138-146.

Dagosto, M. and Gebo, D. L. 1995. Malagasy and Philippine primates: Similarities and differences in conservation problems. Sylvatrop, The Philippine Forest Research Journal 5: 49-56.

Fooden, J. 1991. Eastern limit of distribution of the slow loris, Nycticebus coucang. International Journal of Primatology 12(3): 287-290.

Groves, C. P. 1971. Systematics of the genus Nycticebus. In: J. Biegert and R. W. Leutenegge (eds), Taxonomy, anatomy, reproduction. Proceedings of the third international congress of primatology, pp. 44-53. S. Karger, Basel, Switzerland.

Groves, C. P. 2001. Primate taxonomy. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA.

Heaney, L.R., Balete, D.S., Dollar, M.L., Alcala, A.C., Dans, A.T.L., Gonzales, P.C., Ingle, N. R., Lepiten, M. V., Oliver, W. L. R., Ong, P. S., Rickart, E.A., Tabaranza Jr., B.R. and Utzurrum, R.C.B. 1998. A synopsis of the Mammalian Fauna of the Philippine Islands. Fieldiana: Zoology 88: 1-61.

Indrawan, M. and Rangkuti, F. 2001. Status des Natuna-Langurs auf den Natuna-Inseln. ZGAP Mitteilungen 17(2): 20-21.

IUCN. 2008. 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Available at: (Accessed: 5 October 2008).

Meijaard, E. , Sheil, D., Nasi, R., Augeri, D., Rosenbaum, B., Iskandar, D., Setyawati, T., Lammertink, M., Rachmatika, I., Wong, A., Soehartono, T., Stanley, S. and O'Brien, T. 2005. Life after logging: Reconciling wildlife conservation and production forestry in Indonesian Borneo. Center for International Forestry Research, Jakarta, Indonesia.

Nekaris, K.A.I. and Jaffe, S. 2007. Unexpected diversity within the Javan slow loris trade: implications for slow loris taxonomy. Contributions to Zoology 76: 187-196.

Nekaris, K.A.I., Blackham, G.V. and Nijman, V. 2008. Conservation implications of low encounter rates of five nocturnal primate species (Nycticebus spp.) in Asia. Biodversity and Conservation 17(4): 733-747.

Payne, J.C.M., Francis, C.M. and Phillipps, K. 1985. A field guide to the mammals of Borneo. The Sabah Society, Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia.

Ravosa, M. 1998. Cranial allometry and geographic variation in slow lorises (Nycticebus). American Journal of Primatology 45: 225-243.

Roos, C. 2003. Molekulare Phylogenie der Halbaffen, Schlankaffen, und Gibbons. Technischen Universität.

Timm, R. M. and Birney, E. C. 1992. Systematic notes on the Philippine slow loris, Nycticebus coucang menagensis (Lydekker, 1893) (primates, Lorisidae). International Journal of Primatology 13(6): 679?686.

Wells, K., Linsenmair, K. E., Pfeiffer, M. and Lakim, M. B. 2004. Use of arboreal and terrestrial space by a small mammal community in a tropical rain forest in Borneo, Malaysia. Journal of Biogeography 31: 641-652.

Citation: Nekaris, A. & Streicher, U. 2008. Nycticebus menagensis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <>. Downloaded on 19 September 2014.
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