Nycticebus menagensis 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Primates Lorisidae

Scientific Name: Nycticebus menagensis Trouessart, 1893
Common Name(s):
English Philippine Slow Loris
Nycticebus bancanus Lyon, 1906
Nycticebus borneanus Lyon, 1906
Nycticebus coucang Trouessart, 1893 ssp. menagensis
Nycticebus philippinus Cabrera, 1908
Taxonomic Notes: This taxon was formerly considered a subspecies of Nycticebus coucang, but was elevated to species level by Roos (2003) and Chen et al. (2006). See also Nekaris and Jaffe (2007). The smallest of the Indonesian slow lorises, it is not only distinguished genetically from the others, but also by its pale golden to red fur, virtual lack of markings on its head, and consistent absence of a second upper incisor (Groves 1971, 1998; Ravosa 1998; Chen et al. 2006; Nekaris and Jaffe 2007).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable A2cd+3cd ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-06-30
Assessor(s): Nekaris, A. & Streicher, U.
Reviewer(s): Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority)
Listed as Vulnerable as there has probably been more than a 30% reduction in population over three generations (approximately 21-24 years) based on harvesting for the pet trade and extensive habitat loss.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is found in Brunei, Indonesia (Kalimantan Borneo, Belitung and Banka), Malaysia (Sabah and Sarawak Borneo) and the Philippines (Tawi Tawi, Bongao, Sangasanga, and perhaps some other small islands in the Sulu Archipelago) (Fooden 1991; Timm and Birney 1992). Ethnographic survey records suggest local extinction in some islands in the Tawi Tawi group (Philippines), though the species is still likely to be found on smaller islands (Garcia pers. comm. 2006).
Countries occurrence:
Brunei Darussalam; Indonesia; Malaysia; Philippines
Additional data:
Lower elevation limit (metres):35
Upper elevation limit (metres):100
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:Based on data collected from researchers in the field and old specimens from museum collections, Meijaard et al. (2005) claimed that this species is common throughout Borneo. However, loris "presence" is usually not determined first-hand (Chivers and Burton 1988; Indrawan and Rangkuti 2001), and it also cannot be presumed that lorises still occur in areas from where they were once collected. The species actually seems to be very uncommon throughout its range. It has a very limited distribution in the Philippines (Dagosto and Gebo 1995; Heaney et al. 1998). In Kalimantan, a 3-month survey in a protected peat swamp forest (Sabangau National Park) revealed very low densities of slow lorises, 0.21 - 0.38 animals/km (Nekaris et al. in review). When comparing this to other studies of Nycticebus, it seems clear that this species, when it does occur, is rare. Indeed, in 46,000 trapping nights in Kinabalu National Park, Wells et al. (2004) trapped this species only 3 times, and noted that in nocturnal walks over five years, it was rarely seen.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:The species occurs in primary and secondary lowland forest, gardens, and plantations (Payne et al. 1985; Timm and Birney 1992), at elevations between 35-100 m. According to interviews with local people in the Philippines, the species tends to be sighted in citrus trees (calamansi) (Garcia pers. comm. 2006) and may be tolerant of a variety of habitats. It is nocturnal, and almost entirely arboreal. In Sabangau National Park, of four sightings of lorises, 50% contained two or more individuals, feeding together in the same tree (Callophylum hosei and Szygium cf. nigricans).

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Burning of habitat and conversion, especially to palm oil plantations, almost certainly represents a threat to this species. Although it is relatively adaptable to anthropogenic habitats, and so it might less affected by forest loss than some other primate species, forest loss has been so severe in the region that it is likely to have had some negative impacts. The species is collected locally for use as pets; subsequent uncontrolled release of pets in some areas is also a threat.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is included in Appendix I of CITES and is protected by Indonesian law. Surveys to study the status of all populations, including those from the Philippines and other small Indonesian islands are required. Some forest fragments where the species occur remain protected. There is a particular need for field guides for this and other nocturnal Indonesian primate species, as they are often confused in rescue centers and elsewhere. The species occurs in a number of protected areas throughout its range, though its status there is uncertain (Nekaris et al. 2008).

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.3. Artificial/Terrestrial - Plantations
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.4. Artificial/Terrestrial - Rural Gardens
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
1. Land/water protection -> 1.2. Resource & habitat protection
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
3. Species management -> 3.1. Species management -> 3.1.1. Harvest management
3. Species management -> 3.1. Species management -> 3.1.2. Trade management
4. Education & awareness -> 4.1. Formal education
5. Law & policy -> 5.4. Compliance and enforcement -> 5.4.2. National level

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
  Included in international legislation:Yes
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:Yes
2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.3. Agro-industry farming
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.2. Wood & pulp plantations -> 2.2.2. Agro-industry plantations
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.5. Motivation Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

7. Natural system modifications -> 7.1. Fire & fire suppression -> 7.1.3. Trend Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

♦  Pets/display animals, horticulture
 Local : ✓   National : ✓ 

Bibliography [top]

Cabrera, A. 1908. Sobre los loris, y en especial sobre la forma Filipina. Boletín de la Real Sociedad Española de Historia Natural. Madrid 8(3): 135–139.

Chasen, F. 1935. On a collection of mammals from the Natuna Islands. Bulletin of the Raffles Museum, Singapore 10: 5-42.

Chen, J.H., Pan, D., Groves, C., Wang, Y.X., Narushima, E., Fitch-Snyder, H., Crow, P., Thanh, V., Ryder, O., Zhang, H.W., Fu, Y. and Zhang, Y. 2006. Molecular phylogeny of Nycticebus inferred from mitochondrial genes. International Journal of Primatology 27(4): 1187-1200.

Chivers DJ, Burton KM. 1988. Some observations on the primates of Kalimantan Tengah, Indonesia. Primate Conservation 9: 138-146.

Dagosto, M. and Gebo, D. L. 1995. Malagasy and Philippine primates: Similarities and differences in conservation problems. Sylvatrop, The Philippine Forest Research Journal 5: 49-56.

Fooden, J. 1991. Eastern limit of distribution of the slow loris, Nycticebus coucang. International Journal of Primatology 12(3): 287-290.

Groves C. 2001. Primate Taxonomy. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA.

Groves, C. P. 1971. Systematics of the genus Nycticebus. In: J. Biegert and R. W. Leutenegge (eds), Taxonomy, anatomy, reproduction. Proceedings of the third international congress of primatology, pp. 44-53. S. Karger, Basel, Switzerland.

Heaney, L.R., Balete, D.S., Dollar, M.L., Alcala, A.C., Dans, A.T.L., Gonzales, P.C., Ingle, N.R., Lepiten, M.V., Oliver, W.L.R., Ong, P.S., Rickart, E.A., Tabaranza Jr., B.R. and Utzurrum, R.C.B. 1998. A synopsis of the mammalian fauna of the Philippine Islands. Fieldiana: Zoology (New Series) 88: 1–61.

Indrawan, M. and Rangkuti, F. 2001. Status des Natuna-Langurs auf den Natuna-Inseln. ZGAP Mitteilungen 17(2): 20-21.

IUCN. 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Available at: (Accessed: 5 October 2008).

Meijaard, E., Sheil, D., Nasi, R., Augeri, D., Rosenbaum, B., Iskandar, D., Setyawati, T., Lammertink, M., Rachmatika, I., Wong, A., Soehartono, T., Stanley, S. and O'Brien, T. 2005. Life after logging: Reconciling wildlife conservation and production forestry in Indonesian Borneo. Center for International Forestry Research, Jakarta, Indonesia.

Nekaris, K.A.I. and Jaffe, S. 2007. Unexpected diversity within the Javan slow loris trade: implications for slow loris taxonomy. Contributions to Zoology 76: 187-196.

Nekaris, K.A.I., Blackham, G.V. and Nijman, V. 2008. Conservation implications of low encounter rates of five nocturnal primate species (Nycticebus spp.) in Asia. Biodversity and Conservation 17(4): 733-747.

Payne, J., Francis, C.M. and Phillipps, K. 1985. A field guide to the mammals of Borneo. The Sabah Society and WWF Malaysia, Kota Kinabalu and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Ravosa, M. 1998. Cranial allometry and geographic variation in slow lorises (Nycticebus). American Journal of Primatology 45: 225-243.

Roos, C. 2003. Molekulare Phylogenie der Halbaffen, Schlankaffen, und Gibbons. Technischen Universität.

Timm, R.M. and Birney, E.C. 1992. Systematic notes on the Philippine slow loris, Nycticebus coucang menagensis (Lydekker, 1893) (primates, Lorisidae). International Journal of Primatology 13(6): 679–686.

Wells, K., Linsenmair, K.E., Pfeiffer, M. and Lakim, M.B. 2004. Use of arboreal and terrestrial space by a small mammal community in a tropical rain forest in Borneo, Malaysia. Journal of Biogeography 31: 641-652.

Citation: Nekaris, A. & Streicher, U. 2008. Nycticebus menagensis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T39760A10263652. . Downloaded on 18 June 2018.
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