|Scientific Name:||Erebia sudetica|
|Species Authority:||Staudinger, 1861|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Vulnerable A2c ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||van Swaay, C., Wynhoff, I., Verovnik, R., Wiemers, M., López Munguira, M., Maes, D., Sasic, M., Verstrael, T., Warren, M. & Settele, J.|
|Reviewer(s):||Lewis, O. (Butterfly RLA) & Cuttelod, A. (IUCN Red List Unit)|
This is a local species with scattered populations in Europe. Population declines have been reported in Switzerland and Romania. In Romania there are two distinct populations: a large one in the Eastern Carpathians (Rodna) and one in the Southern Carpathians (Retezat), which seems to be on the brink of extinction. In Poland the situation is unclear, and it is not known if the species maintains a resident population at the moment. It is considered that both in Europe and the EU-27 countries the species has declined by more than 30%. Therefore it is classified as Vulnerable.
|Range Description:||This is a European species that occurs very locally in widely separated areas: in France in the Massif Central (Monts du Cantal) and the Alps (Savoie and Isère), in central Switzerland (Grindelwald), in Czech Republic (Sudeten) and in Romania in three places in the Carpathians. Its elevational range is 1,200-2,000 m. This is a European endemic species.|
Native:Czech Republic; France; Romania; Switzerland
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The Sudeten Ringlet is a local species, restricted to (semi-) natural areas. It is reported extinct in Poland. Strong declines in distribution or population size of more than 30% have been reported from Romania. Declines in distribution or population size of 6-30% have been reported from Switzerland. Populations are more or less stable in France. In Czech Republic, there is a (quite strong) range decline, but the population size appears to be stable (Eionet 2010).|
|Habitat and Ecology:||The Sudeten Ringlet occurs on alpine and sub-alpine grasslands, especially those near the tree-line. They are most numerous on damp grasslands with tall grasses and flowering plants, but they also reproduce on dry grassland. Although Sweet Vernal-grass (Anthoxanthum odoratum) is probably the most important foodplant, other grasses, such as Annual Meadow-grass (Poa annua), are also used. It has one generation a year and passes the winter as a caterpillar. Habitats: alpine and subalpine grasslands (37%), coniferous woodland (25%), mixed woodland (12%), inland cliffs and exposed rocks (12%), mesophile grasslands (12%).|
|Use and Trade:||All butterflies are collected to some extent, but only for the extremely rare species it can be a problem and the trade in Europe is generally at a low level compared to other continents. There is no specific trade information for this species.|
|Major Threat(s):||The main threats are intensified grazing and abandonment. Considering its limited distribution, the Sudeten Ringlet may become threatened in the long term by climate change. As the species is not treated in the Climatic Risk Atlas (Settele et al. 2008) there is no information on the possible change of the climate envelope.|
|Conservation Actions:||The species is listed on the Habitats Directive Annex 4 and Bern Convention Annex 2. More research is needed on the distribution and ecology of the species. Suitable habitats should be protected and appropriately managed. The effects of conservation actions should be monitored by a Butterfly Monitoring Scheme. In the Czech Republic, Poland and Romania, the species only occurs in protected areas.|
IUCN. 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2010.1). Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 10 March 2010).
Kuras, T.; Benes, J.; Fric, Z.; Konvicka, M. 2003. Dispersal patterns of endemic alpine butterflies with contrasting population structures: Erebia epiphron and E. sudetica. Population Ecology 45(2): 115-123.
Kuras, T.; Benes, J.; Konvicka, M.; Honc, L. 2001. Life histories of Erebia sudetica sudetica and E, epiphron silesiana with description of immature stages. Atalanta 32(1/2): 187-196.
Settele, J., Kudrna, O., Harpke, A., Kühn, I., Swaay, C. van, Verovnik, R., Warren, M., Wiemers, M., Hanspach, J., Hickler, T., Kühn, E., Halder, I. van, Veling, K., Vliegenthart, A., Wynhoff, I., Schweiger, O. 2008. Climatic risk atlas of European butterflies. Biorisk 1 (Special Issue). Pensoft, Sofia.
Species summary for Erebia sudetica. Available at: http://biodiversity.eionet.europa.eu/article17/index_html/speciessummary/. (Accessed: 13 January).
van Helsdingen, P.J., Willemse, L. and Speight, M.C.D. 1998. Background information on invertebrates of the Habitats Directive and the Bern Convention. Part I - Crustacea, Coleoptera and Lepidoptera. Nature and Environment No. 79. Council of Europe Publishing, Strasbourg.
|Citation:||van Swaay, C., Wynhoff, I., Verovnik, R., Wiemers, M., López Munguira, M., Maes, D., Sasic, M., Verstrael, T., Warren, M. & Settele, J. 2010. Erebia sudetica. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 27 March 2015.|