|Scientific Name:||Galidia elegans|
|Species Authority:||I. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1837|
|Taxonomic Notes:||There are three described subspecies: an eastern race (G. e. elegans) found in the eastern rainforests; a western race (G. e. occidentalis) found in deciduous forests in the central western parts; and a northern race (G. e. dambrensis) in the north.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Contributor(s):||Golden, C., Jenkins, R.K.B., Jones, J.P.G. & Farris, Z.J.|
Ring-tailed Vontsira is listed as Least Concern. It is close to listing as Near Threatened because over the course of the next three generations (taken as 20 years), it is likely that the population will drop by more than than 15% (and possibly much more) mainly because of widespread hunting, persecution and the effects of introduced carnivores. The rate of hunting has increased significantly recently because of the breakdown of governance since the coup d'etat in 2009, leading to increased artisanal mining in forest areas, increased hunting, and increased opportunistic rosewood cutting throughout the species's range. If this deteriorates yet further, it is likely that a Near Threatened listing will be warranted.
|Previously published Red List assessments:||
Ring-tailed Vontsira is restricted to Madagascar. It occurs from Montagne d’Ambre in the north down the eastern side, including in littoral forests, and to 1,950 m asl, to Andohahela in the southeast. It is absent from most of the west, except in limestone massifs and adjacent forests around Namoroka and Bemaraha (Goodman 2012).
|Upper elevation limit (metres):||1950|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
The available information suggests that Ring-tailed Vontsira is common. Gerber et al. (2012) recorded it in 100% of camera-traps in intact and logged forest around Ranomafana National Park, in 77% (± 10%) in fragments less than 2.5 km from intact forest, in 19% (± 12%) of forest matrix around these fragments, in 77% (±10%) of fragments more than 15 km from intact forest, and in 19% (± 12%) of forest matrix around these forest fragment sites. Similarly, in the Masoala-Makira landscape, Ring-tailed Vontsira was detected in all degraded, fragmented sites surveyed (Z. Farris pers. comm. 2014).
In northeast Madagascar, camera trap surveys (Farris et al. in review a, Z. Farris pers. comm. 2014) revealed a moderate probability of occupancy (defined as the probability that a site/forest is occupied by the species of interest while taking into account the variation in detectability of the species across the various sites) of 0.48 SE ± 0.08 for this carnivore across the Masoala-Makira landscape, although this estimate is likely to have been biased by survey efforts being highest in forest habitat located far from habitation, where Ring-tailed Vontsira is less likely to be detected.
Over a six-year period at one site, camera-trap success (number of captures divided by camera-trap nights multiplied by 100) changed from 1.37 in 2008 to 0.35 in 2013. At a different site, trap success was relatively consistent: 3.78 in 2011 to 3.62 in 2013 (Z. Farris pers. comm. 2014).
In both Ranomafana and Makira, Ring-tailed Vontsira presence was strongly negatively correlated with feral/wild cat occupancy, which is highest near villages (Farris and Kelly 2011, Gerber et al. 2012, Farris et al. in review a).
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This largely terrestrial, diurnal species is present in tropical humid lowland and montane forest, and tropical dry deciduous forest in the west of its range. An agile climber, it has occassionally been seen in trees, and it is also an adept swimmer. It has been recorded preying on crayfish in freshwater (Dunham 1997). It is recorded from secondary forests, although only where immediately adjacent to primary forest, and can be found at the forest edge, close to areas of slash-and-burn cultivation.
Ring-tailed Vontsira was more active and had a higher probability of occupancy in degraded forest sites; however, occupancy diminished closer to villages. This negative association with villages may be a reflection of intense hunting pressure (Farris and Kelly 2011, Farris et al. 2012, Farris et al. in review a).
In one survey area, Ring-tailed Vontsira was primarily camera-trapped in duos. It was primarily diurnal, with some crepuscular and limited nocturnal activity perhaps related to seasonal changes (Farris et al. in review b).
This species is known to scavenge regularly in human refuse in primary forest camps. Animals typically spend the night in burrows in the forest. Although sometimes solitary, it is a social species usually found in pairs with up to three offspring (Dunham 1998). The gestation period is unclear, but it appears to be between 52 and 90 days, after which a single young is born (Goodman 2003). Sexual maturity is attained at about two years.
|Generation Length (years):||6.7|
|Movement patterns:||Not a Migrant|
|Use and Trade:||It is hunted for bushmeat (Golden et al. in press) and certain parts of the animal (e.g. the tail) are used for cultural purposes by some tribal groups (Goodman 2003).|
Ring-tailed Vontsira remains widespread, occurs in a number of protected areas and even persists in forest fragments. As with most forest-dwelling animals in Madagascar, deforestation to cultivated land, hunting and negative effect of introduced carnivores are the most important threats.
Deforestation and forest disturbance across its range has increased significantly since 2009. R. Rajaonson (pers. comm. 2014) estimates that deforestation in eastern forest increased from 0.5% per annum in 2005-2010 to 0.94% per annum in 2010-2013. Allnut et al. (2009) estimated that in Masoala National Park, annual rates of deforestation in the studied area increased to 1.27% per annum in 2011. High levels of illegal settlement in protected areas, especially around the Bay of Antongil, are linked to artisanal mining (for quartz) and logging of rosewood, and hunting for food using dogs has increased greatly in these areas as a result. Some villages have seen increases in populations of between 200 and 300% (C. Golden pers. comm. 2014).
This species is persecuted for raiding local poultry (Golden 2005) and is killed by dogs accompanying hunters in the forest. Hunting and/or bushmeat consumption presents a serious concern for Ring-tailed Vontsira across the eastern rainforest. Golden et al. (in press) reported 21 Ring-tailed Vontsiras hunted in one year at Betampona Strict Nature Reserve. In the Makira landscape a total of 169 Ring-tailed Vontsiras were consumed within four villages (144 households) from 2005 to 2011 near the Makira Natural Park. Hunting rates were positively associated with Ring-tailed Vontsira occupancy, meaning hunters appear to be focusing their efforts in non-degraded forest where it is most abundant. In addition, Ring-tailed Vontsira consistently was the most purchased and most trapped small carnivore across the landscape, which is likely to reflect its overall apparent abundance and higher level of activity in and around anthropogenic areas (Farris et al. in review a).
Household interviews conducted by Madagasikara Voakajy (pers. comm. 2014) in the Moramanga region of eastern Madagascar in 2008-2009 suggested that 385 (24%) of 1,631 respondents interviewed in 129 villages had eaten Ring-tailed Vontsira in the preceding year. Certain parts of the animal (e.g. the tail) are used for cultural purposes by some tribal groups (Goodman 2003). Competition with the introduced Small Indian Civet Viverricula indica and feral cats and dogs may threaten this species in parts of its range. Ring-tailed Vontsira had very strong temporal activity overlap with dogs and moderate overlap with feral/wild cats, revealing the potential for increased interactions and competition (Farris et al. in review b).
Co-occurrence models demonstrate that the Vontsira does not occur at sites where Small Indian Civet activity is very high, and that Vontsira probability of occupancy is greatly decreased in the presence of Small Indian Civets (Farris et al. in review c).
|Conservation Actions:||Ring-tailed Vontsira is present in many protected areas including Ranomafana, Mantadia, Marojejy, Montagne d'Ambre and Bemaraha National Parks, and Analamazaotra Special Reserve. Further field research on the taxonomic distinction of both the northern and western subspecies from the eastern nominate subspecies would be useful.|
Albignac, R. 1973. Mammiferes carnivores. Faune de Madagascar. ORSTOM/CNRS, Paris, France.
Allnut, T.F., Asner, G.P., Golden, C.D. and Powell, G.V.N. 2013. Mapping recent deforestation and disturbance in northeastern Madagascar. Tropical Conservation Science 6: 1-15.
Dunham, A. E. 1998. Notes on the behaviour of the Ring-tailed mongoose, Galidia elegans, at Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar. Small Carnivore Conservation 19: 21-23.
Farris Z.J. and Kelly, M.J. 2011. A preliminary assessment of carnivores across the Makira Protected Area, Madagascar: results from a WCS pilot camera study. Wildlife Conservation Society, Antananarivo, Madagascar.
Farris, Z.J., Gerber, B., Kelly, M.J., Karpanty, S., Murphy, F. and Andrianjakarivelo, V. in review b. When the carnivores roam: temporal patterns and partitioning among Madagascar’s native and exotic carnivores.
Farris, Z.J., Golden, C., Karpanty, S., Murphy, A., Stauffer, D., Andrianjakarivelo, V., Ratelolahy, F., Holmes, C. and Kelly, M.J. in review a. Effects of poaching, micro-habitat and landscape variables, human encroachment, and exotic species on Madagascar’s endemic and exotic carnivore community across the Masoala-Makira landscape.
Farris, Z.J., Karpanty, S., Kelly, M., Murphy, A., Ratelolahy, F. and Holmes C. In prep. c. Spatial co-occurrence and detection of endemic and exotic carnivores in Madagascar: factors impacting their interactions across the Masoala-Makira landscape.
Farris Z.J., Kelly M., Karpanty S.M., Ratelolahy F., Andrianjakarivelo V. and Holmes C. 2012. Brown-tailed Vontsira Salanoia concolor (Eupleridae) documented in Makira Natural Park, Madagascar: new insights on distribution and camera-trap success. Small Carnivore Conservation 47: 82–86.
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Gerber, B.D., Karpanty, S.M. and Randrianantenaina, J. 2012. The impact of forest logging and fragmentation on carnivore species composition, density and occupancy in Madagascar's rainforests. Oryx 46: 414-422.
Golden, C.D., Rabehatonina, J.C.G., Rakotoarisoa, A. and Moore, M. 2014. Socio-ecological analysis of natural resource use near Betampona Strict Natural Reserve. Madagascar Conservation and Development. (in press).
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Goodman, S.M. 2003. Carnivora: Galidia elegans, Ring-tailed Mongoose, Vontsira Mena. In: S.M. Goodman and J.P. Benstead (eds), The Natural History of Madagascar, pp. 1351-1354. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, USA and London, UK.
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Perschke, M. 1996. Mongooses in the Tsimbazaza Zoo and the Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar. Small Carnivore Conservation 14: 1.
Schreiber, A., Wirth, R., Riffel, M. and Van Rompaey, H. 1989. Weasels, civets, mongooses, and their relatives. An Action Plan for the conservation of mustelids and viverrids. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.
|Citation:||Hawkins, F. 2015. Galidia elegans. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T39426A45204213. . Downloaded on 02 December 2015.|
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