|Scientific Name:||Pseudocarcharias kamoharai|
|Species Authority:||(Matsubara, 1936)|
Carcharias kamoharai Matsubara, 1936
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Near Threatened ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Compagno, L.J.V. & Musick, J.A.|
|Reviewer(s):||Musick, J.A. & Fowler, S.L. (Shark Red List Authority)|
This assessment is based on the information published in the 2005 shark status survey (Fowler et al. 2005).
The Crocodile Shark (Pseudocarcharias kamoharai) is a small, uncommon, pelagic, oceanic shark and circumtropical in distribution. This species is vulnerable as bycatch in pelagic longline fisheries, which are expanding worldwide. Thus, because of its small litter size and probable demography, this species may be threatened in the near future, although there are no catch per unit effort records available to indicate trends in population size.
|Range Description:||An oceanic and circumtropical species that occurs at the surface to at least 590 m depth, usually found offshore and far from land but sometimes occurring inshore and near the bottom (Compagno 1984a).
Western Atlantic: off Brazil, eastern Atlantic: south¬east of Cape Verde Islands, between them and Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Angola and South Africa (Western Cape).
Western Indian Ocean: Mozambique Channel south¬west of southern Madagascar.
Eastern Indian Ocean: Bay of Bengal (possibly erroneous).
Northwest Pacific: off Japan, Taiwan (Province of China) and the Koreas.
Southwest Pacific: west of New Zealand (North Island), Coral Sea, Indonesia (south of Sumatra near Sunda Straits and off Java).
Central Pacific: Marquesas Islands, Hawaiian Islands, open ocean between Marquesas and Hawaiian islands, open ocean between Hawaiian Islands and Baja California.
Eastern Pacific: off Costa Rica and Panama.
Subpopulation details are unknown (Compagno 2001).
Native:Angola (Angola); Australia (Coral Sea Is. Territory); Brazil; Cape Verde; Costa Rica; Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Indonesia; Japan; Korea, Democratic People's Republic of; Korea, Republic of; Madagascar; Mozambique; New Zealand (North Is.); Panama; South Africa; Taiwan, Province of China; United States (California, Hawaiian Is.)
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Atlantic – eastern central; Atlantic – southeast; Indian Ocean – western; Pacific – eastern central; Pacific – northwest; Pacific – southeast; Pacific – southwest; Pacific – western central
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
A small wide-ranging and apparently uncommon pelagic species, for which very little biological data are available. Large eyes suggest nocturnal activity or deepwater existence (Last and Stevens 1994). Feeding habits of this shark are sketchily known. Its long, flexed teeth, strong and long jaws, and its vigorous activity when captured adapt it to moderately large, active, oceanic prey. Of seven specimens examined for stomach contents, the stomachs of four were empty and three others had a number of small bristlemouths (gonostomatids), possibly lanternfish (myctophids), unidentified fish scales, small shrimp and squid beaks in their stomachs (Compagno 2001).
Reproduction is oviphagous, with a litter size of four, born at about 40 cm. Males mature by 74 cm and females by 89 cm. Maximum reported length 110 cm. Age at maturity, gestation period, longevity and average reproductive age/generation time are all unknown (Compagno 1984a).
|Major Threat(s):||This species is too small to be of much value for fins and is little utilised for flesh and so is a generally discarded and largely unrecorded bycatch of large-scale pelagic longlining operations targeting scombroids and possibly other oceanic fisheries. It has a relatively large mouth and strong teeth and is readily caught on longline hooks fished near the surface. Catch records are very limited and largely confined to a small number of specimens (fewer than 50) deposited in museums. It does not appear to be abundant anywhere, with the known exception of the Mozambique Channel in the western Indian Ocean during the 1960s (Compagno 2001).|
Compagno, L.J.V. 1984. Sharks of the World. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species to date. Part I (Hexanchiformes to Lamniformes). FAO Fisheries Synopsis, FAO, Rome.
Compagno, L.J.V. 2001. Sharks of the World. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the shark species known to date. Volume 2. Bullhead, mackerel and carpet sharks (Heterodontiformes, Lamniformes and Orectolobiformes). FAO, Rome.
Fowler, S.L., Cavanagh, R.D., Camhi, M., Burgess, G.H., Cailliet, G.M., Fordham, S.V., Simpfendorfer, C.A. and Musick, J.A. (comps and eds). 2005. Sharks, Rays and Chimaeras: The Status of the Chondrichthyan Fishes. Status Survey. pp. x + 461. IUCN/SSC Shark Specialist Group, IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
Last, P.R. and Stevens, J.D. 1994. Sharks and Rays of Australia. CSIRO, Melbourne, Australia.
|Citation:||Compagno, L.J.V. & Musick, J.A. 2005. Pseudocarcharias kamoharai. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 27 November 2014.|