Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Liliopsida Arecales Palmae

Scientific Name: Ravenea lakatra
Species Authority: (Jum.) Beentje
Louvelia lakatra Jum.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Critically Endangered D ver 3.1
Year Published: 2012
Date Assessed: 2010-12-17
Assessor(s): Rakotoarinivo, M. & Dransfield, J.
Reviewer(s): Baker, W.J., Beentje, H.J. & Bachman, S., Baker, W.J. & Beentje, H.J.
The palm has a large distribution range (extent of occurrence is over 58,000 km²) but it is not common in any of the current known sites. The population is estimated to only number 30 mature trees. The leaves of this species are exploited by local people for weaving hats and individual palms may be pruned into juvenility by constant harvest of the emerging leaves. This species is listed as Critically Endangered based on the small population size, this is a genuine deterioration since the 1998 listing of Endangered.
Previously published Red List assessments:
1998 Endangered (EN)
1998 Endangered (E)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Endemic to east Madagascar from between Masoala and Vangaindrano.
Countries occurrence:
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2: 307
Number of Locations: 8
Lower elevation limit (metres): 50
Upper elevation limit (metres): 1200
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: This species has an extremely wide range but at each of the known sites there are only a few individuals. The population is estimated to number fewer than 30 mature trees. The population is declining.
Current Population Trend: Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals: 30 Continuing decline of mature individuals: Yes
Population severely fragmented: Yes

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: Occurs in moist lowland forest on slight mid slopes or ridge crests from 50 to 1,200 m..
Systems: Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat: Yes

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: The leaves are harvested and used for weaving hats and other handicrafts.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The main threats to this species are habitat loss through clearance for shifting agriculture and logging and harvesting of the leaves to be used in weaving. Excessive harvesting impacts the reproductive output of the species.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Protected in Masoala, Makira and Andasibe. Regulation and monitoring of the harvest may be required.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
suitability: Suitable  
1. Forest -> 1.9. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane
suitability: Marginal  
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
3. Species management -> 3.1. Species management -> 3.1.1. Harvest management

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.1. Shifting agriculture
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.2. Gathering terrestrial plants -> 5.2.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.3. Indirect species effects -> 2.3.7. Reduced reproductive success

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.3. Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale)
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends
3. Monitoring -> 3.2. Harvest level trends
3. Monitoring -> 3.4. Habitat trends

♦  Wearing apparel, accessories
 Local : ✓ 

♦  Handicrafts, jewellery, etc.
 Local : ✓ 

Bibliography [top]

Dransfield, J. 1996. Palms in Masoala. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Dransfield, J. and Beentje, H. 1995. The Palms of Madagascar. Royal Botanic Gardens Kew and The International Palm Society, Richmond.

IUCN. 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2012.2). Available at: (Accessed: 17 October 2012).

Citation: Rakotoarinivo, M. & Dransfield, J. 2012. Ravenea lakatra. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T38670A2882408. . Downloaded on 13 October 2015.
Disclaimer: To make use of this information, please check the <Terms of Use>.
Feedback: If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please provide us with feedback so that we can correct or extend the information provided