|Scientific Name:||Phoenicophorium borsigianum|
|Species Authority:||(K.Koch) Stuntz|
Areca sechellarum (H.Wendl.) Baill.
Astrocaryum borsigianum K.Koch
Astrocaryum sechellarum (H.Wendl.) Baill.
Phoenicophorium sechellarum H.Wendl.
Stevensonia borsigiana (K.Koch) L.H.Bailey
|Taxonomic Notes:||The only species in its genus, representing a unique evolutionary lineage for the Seychelles.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Ismail, S., Huber, M.J. & Mougal, J.|
|Reviewer(s):||Baker, W.J. & Lutz, M.L.|
Phoenicophorium borsigianum is endemic to the Seychelles and occurs on the eight islands Mahé, Praslin Silhouette, La Digue, Frégate, Curieuse, Félicité and St. Anne. Although the total land area of the eight islands where the species occurs is only 235 km2, there is no criterion met or nearly met. The species can even establish in heavy degraded and invaded forest, dominated by alien invasive species. It is therefore listed as Least Concern. The leaves have been extensively used in the past for thatching of roofs. For tourist infrastructure this practice has a renaissance. While it is not thought that this is currently causing a decline in the population, future trends need to be monitored.
|Range Description:||Endemic to Seychelles, this species occurs on the eight islands: Mahé, Praslin Silhouette, La Digue, Frégate, Curieuse, Félicité and St. Anne (Robertson 1989, Matatiken and Dogley 2006). These islands have a total area of 235 km2 (National Statistics Bureau 2005). The extant of occurrence (EOO) is less than 5,000 km2 and the area of occupancy (AOO) is smaller than 500 km2.
The species is able to establish itself in different habitat types from deep forests to rocky outcrop areas. In a survey in 1994 it was found in 56 out of 73 areas of special conservation value (Carlström 1996). This indicates is wide distribution.
Native:Seychelles (Seychelles (main island group))
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||In 1942, this species was said to be the most abundant of the endemic Seychelles palms (Bailey 1942). This is still thought to be the case (Carlström 1996). It is also used for rehabilitation of degraded areas. The leaves of this species are used for thatching (Carlström 1996), but it seems that this practice does not reduce the population size. The species is able to establish itself in different habitat types from deep forests to rocky outcrop areas. There is no continuing decline observable, as the species reproduces extremely well in most areas (Carlström 1996). In areas with closed canopy it is also able to compete with Cinnamomum verum (Fleischmann 1999).|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Understory tree in forests at low and intermediate altitudes. Colonizes bare eroded ground where drought is severe and able to establish on rocky outcrops. Frequently associates with Lodoicea maldivica on Praslin and Curieuse.|
|Use and Trade:||The leaves have been extensively used in the past for thatching of roofs. For tourist infrastructure this practice has a renaissance. This development has to be observed. Harvesting is not legal but is also not controlled.|
|Major Threat(s):||The species seems to face no threat that cannot be balanced by its natural regeneration. The most severe threat is loss of habitat in lower areas due to construction activities. An additional threat is the use of the leaves for thatching of roofs. The extent of usage is not known but it does not seem to affect the population size.|
|Conservation Actions:||Present in Morne Seychellois Curieuse Marine National Park, St. Anne and Praslin National Parks. The species is protected by the Breadfruit and other Trees (protection) Act.|
Bailey, L.H. 1942. Palmae sechellarum. Gentes Herbarum 6: 1-48.
Carlström, A. 1996. Areas of Special Conservation Value for the Plants of the Granitic Seychelles. Report to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Division of Environment, Victoria, Seychelles.
Carlström, A. 1996. Endemic and Threatened Plant Species on the Granitic Seychelles. Report to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Division of Environment, Victoria, Seychelles.
Dogley, D. and Matatiken, D. 2006. Guide to Endemic Palms and Screw Pines of the Seychelles Granitic Islands. Plant Conservation Action Group, Victoria.
Fleischmann, K. 1999. Relations between the invasive Cinnamomum verum and the endemic Phoenicophorium borsigianum on Mahé island, Seychelles. Applied Vegetation Science 2: 37-46.
IUCN. 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2011.2). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 10 November 2011).
Laws of Seychelles. 1991. Breadfruit and other Trees (protection) Act 1917; Chapter 18, Revised Edition. SPACE The Government Printer, Victoria, Seychelles.
National Statistics Bureau. 2005. Statistical Abstract 2004. Government of Seychelles, Mahé, Seychelles.
Robertson, S.A. 1989. Flowering plants of the Seychelles. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, UK.
|Citation:||Ismail, S., Huber, M.J. & Mougal, J. 2011. Phoenicophorium borsigianum. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 21 October 2014.|
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