|Scientific Name:||Carcharhinus limbatus|
|Species Authority:||(Müller & Henle, 1839)|
|Infra-specific Taxa Assessed:|
Carcharias limbatus Müller & Henle, 1839
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Near Threatened ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Burgess, H. G. & Branstetter, S.|
|Reviewer(s):||Musick, J.A. & Fowler, S.L. (Shark Red List Authority)|
This assessment is based on the information published in the 2005 shark status survey (Fowler et al. 2005).
The Blacktip Shark (Carcharhinus limbatus) is a modest-sized species that is frequently captured in commercial and recreational fisheries. Its meat is well-regarded and its fins are highly marketable. The Blacktip Shark is widespread in warm-temperate, subtropical and tropical waters throughout the world. It frequents inshore waters as adults and has inshore nursery areas, making it highly vulnerable to fishing pressure and human-induced habitat alteration.
|Range Description:||The Blacktip Shark is widespread in warm temperate, subtropical and tropical waters. Primarily it is a continental species, although it is found around some oceanic islands. In the western Atlantic it ranges from Massachusetts, United States, to southern Brazil; in the eastern Atlantic it is known from the Mediterranean Sea southwards to central Africa; it is widespread in the Indian Ocean from South Africa to western Australia, including the Red Sea and Persian Gulf; and in the Pacific Ocean it is recorded from throughout the Indo-Australian Archipelago, at oceanic islands such as Hawaii, Tahiti and the Marquesas, and in the eastern Pacific from California, USA, to Peru (Garrick 1982, Compagno 1984b, Last and Stevens 1994).|
Native:Albania; Algeria; Angola (Angola); Australia (Northern Territory, Western Australia); Bahrain; Belize; Benin; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Brazil; Cameroon; Colombia; Congo; Costa Rica; Croatia; Ecuador; Egypt; Equatorial Guinea; Eritrea; France; French Guiana; Gabon; Gambia; Ghana; Greece; Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Guyana; Honduras; Indonesia; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Iraq; Italy; Kuwait; Lebanon; Liberia; Libya; Malaysia; Mauritania; Mexico; Morocco; Myanmar; Nicaragua; Nigeria; Oman; Panama; Papua New Guinea; Peru; Philippines; Qatar; Samoa; Saudi Arabia; Senegal; Serbia (Serbia); Sierra Leone; Somalia; South Africa; Spain; Sudan; Suriname; Syrian Arab Republic; Thailand; Togo; Tonga; Tunisia; Turkey; United Arab Emirates; United States (Arizona, California, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Massachusetts, New Jersey, New Mexico, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Texas, Virginia); Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of; Western Sahara; Yemen
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Atlantic – eastern central; Atlantic – northwest; Atlantic – southeast; Atlantic – southwest; Atlantic – western central; Indian Ocean – eastern; Indian Ocean – western; Mediterranean and Black Sea; Pacific – eastern central; Pacific – northwest; Pacific – southeast; Pacific – western central
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The Blacktip Shark is common in nearshore waters. It may be the most abundant large-coastal species in the north-west Gulf of Mexico (Branstetter 1981a).|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
The Blacktip Shark occurs in nearshore waters off beaches, in bays, estuaries, over coral reefs and off river mouths. In the western North Atlantic it migrates north seasonally as far as Cape Cod, Massachusetts (Bigelow and Schroeder 1948) and is common year-round in southern areas of the USA. In this region males and females generally remain in sexually segregated schools outside of the mating season and off South Africa there is similar segregation in the local population (Dudley and Cliff 1993b).
This species commonly occurs in loose aggregations. The Blacktip Shark uses coastal bays and estuaries throughout the south-eastern US as nursery grounds (Castro 1996). It has an unusual habit of leaping from the water, rotating as many as three times, and falling back in the water, usually on its back. For this behaviour, as well as its similar morphology, it is often confused with the Spinner Shark.
The Blacktip Shark primarily eats bony fishes, but its diet also contains smaller amounts of crustaceans, such as shrimp and crabs and cephalopods (Bigelow and Schroeder 1948, Dudley and Cliff 1993b, Castro 1996). Small-sized elasmobranchs are also consumed in lesser quantities. This shark commonly follows fishing trawlers, consuming discarded bycatch and rarely attacking the cod ends of trawl nets.
The species is placentally viviparous producing 4-11 pups (mean 4-6) after an 11-12 month gestation period (Killam 1987, Dudley and Cliff 1993b, Castro 1996). Larger females produce more and larger pups. The females have a one-year resting stage between pregnancies, making the reproductive cycle a two-year event. In the western North Atlantic, mating occurs in early June through early July; in South Africa it occurs in November and December. Implantation usually occurs during the 10-11th weeks of gestation (when embryos measure 178-194 mm total length (TL)) and pups are born in late May-early June the next year. Pups occupy specific nursery grounds in shallow coastal waters away from the adult population, which may reduce predatory mortality on the cohorts. Pups are born at 53-65 cm TL. The neonate stage lasts about a month and the juveniles continue to occupy nearshore nursery areas. Neonates increase by 25-30 cm during the first six months, have an annual growth of 20 cm during the second year of life and growth slows gradually through adulthood. This is a very fast growing species compared to its congeners. After reaching maturity, growth is less than 5 cm annually. The oldest fish aged have been 9-10 years of age. Von Bertalanffy growth parameters for western North Atlantic Blacktip Sharks are: Females: L∞ = 195 cm TL; k = 0.197 year-1 t = -1.15 year (Killam and Parsons 1989). Males: L∞ = 167 cm TL; k = 0.276 year-1 t = -0.88 year (Killam and Parsons 1989). Sexes combined: L∞ = 176 cm TL; k = 0.274 year-1 t = -1.2 year (Branstetter 1987).
There are regional differences in many biological parameters of Blacktip Sharks. In the western North Atlantic, males mature at 130-145 cm TL (or 4-5 years of age) and most females mature at 150-156 cm TL (or 6-7 years of age). In South Africa most males reach maturity at 146-150 cm pre-caudal length (PCL) and females at 151-155 cm PCL. The smallest pregnant female observed in South Africa was 146 cm PCL. Maximum reported size of females for the Northwest Atlantic population is 193 cm, with most large females ranging from 175-185 cm TL. Maximum reported size for males is 175 cm TL (128 cm PCL) and most are less than 165 cm TL in this region. In South Africa maximum sizes for both sexes occurs at 190 cm PCL, with modes of 161-165 cm PCL for males and 166-170 cm PCL for females. A female reaching 206 cm PCL has been recorded from the equatorial Indian Ocean The intrinsic rate of increase has been estimated at 0.054 (Smith et al. 1998). In the western North Atlantic, at approximately 100 cm TL the shark weighs about 10 kg, at 150 cm TL about 25 kg and when nearing maximum size (ca. 180 cm TL) it will weigh almost 50 kg. Weight-length relationships for Blacktip Sharks in this region are: Males: wt (kg) = 1.4 × 10-5(cm TL 2.9) (Killam 1987) Females: wt (kg) = 3.0 × 10-6 (cm TL 3.1) (Killam 1987) Sexes combined: wt (kg) = 1.44 × 10-5(cm TL 2.87) (Branstetter 1987a) For South African blacktips (Killam 1987), the relationships are: Males: wt (kg) = 1.18 × 10-5(cm PCL 3.05) Females: wt (kg) = 1.08 × 10-5(cm PCL 3.08).
|Use and Trade:||Fished for recreational fisheries, but mainly targeted in commercial fisheries. Blacktip Shark meat is primarily consumed locally and fins are dried and shipped to the Far East where they are used in preparing shark-fin soup. In some areas the hides are utilised in preparing leather and the livers are used to extract oil.|
|Major Threat(s):||In the western North Atlantic this species has long been important in the recreational fishery and now is a primary target of the directed commercial fishery along the southeast coast from South Carolina to Florida and throughout the Gulf of Mexico (Branstetter and Burgess 1996, 1997). It is the second most important commercially landed species in that region after the Sandbar Shark (Carcharhinus plumbeus) and its meat is considered superior to the latter species. In the USA, Blacktip Shark other carcharhinid meat is often sold under the name "Blacktip Shark" because of wide consumer preference for the product. It is a significant constituent of the substantial Mexican shark catch, from both Atlantic and Pacific coasts. Elsewhere, it is the most commonly caught species in the large Indian fishery (Hanfee 1996), occasionally caught in the Mediterranean Sea driftnet fishery (Walker et al. 2005), and surely constitutes a sizeable portion of the catch in smaller scale and artisanal fisheries throughout the northern Indian Ocean and South China Sea. In Australia, it represents a minor component of the shark catch in northern Australia (Last and Stevens 1994). Blacktip Shark meat is primarily consumed locally and fins are dried and shipped to the Far East where they are used in preparing shark-fin soup. In some areas the hides are utilised in preparing leather and the livers are used to extract oil.|
|Conservation Actions:||The Blacktip Shark receives management in only two countries, Australia and the USA. In Australia, it is one of a suite of species that is collectively managed in the limited-entry fishery of northern Australia (Simpfendorfer pers. comm.). A keystone species in the US Atlantic directed shark fishery, it similarly is managed through a management plan that addresses the entire group of species represented in the fishery. At the time of this writing, species-specific management of the Blacktip Shark in the region was forthcoming.|
Bigelow, H.B. and Schroeder, W.C. 1948. In: A.E. Parr and Y.H. Olsen (eds), Fishes of the Western North Atlantic. Part 1. Lancets, Cyclostomes and Sharks, Sears Foundation for Marine Research, Memoirs, Yale University, New Haven, USA.
Branstetter, S. 1981. Biological notes on the sharks of the north-central Gulf of Mexico. Contributions in Marine Science 24: 13-34.
Branstetter, S. 1987. Age and growth estimates for Blacktip, Carcharhinus limbatus, and Spinner, C. brevipinna, sharks from the northwestern Gulf of Mexico. Copeia 4: 964–974.
Branstetter, S. and Burgess, G.H. 1996. Commercial Shark Fishery Observer Program. Characterization and comparisons of the directed commercial shark fishery in the eastern Gulf of Mexico and off North Carolina through an observer program. Final Report. MARFIN Award NA47FF0008.
Branstetter, S. and Burgess, G.H. 1997. Commercial Shark Fishery Observer Program. MARFIN Award NA57FF0286.
Castro, J.I. 1996. Biology of the blacktip shark, Carcharhinus limbatus, off the southeastern United States. Bulletin of Marine Science 59(3): 508–522.
Compagno, L.J.V. 1984. Sharks of the World. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species to date. Part II (Carcharhiniformes). FAO Fisheries Synopsis, FAO, Rome.
Dudley, S.F.J. and Cliff, G. 1993. Sharks caught in the protective gillnets off Natal, South Africa. 7. The blacktip shark Carcharhinus limbatus (Valenciennes). South African Journal of Marine Science 13: 237–254.
Fowler, S.L., Cavanagh, R.D., Camhi, M., Burgess, G.H., Cailliet, G.M., Fordham, S.V., Simpfendorfer, C.A. and Musick, J.A. (comps and eds). 2005. Sharks, Rays and Chimaeras: The Status of the Chondrichthyan Fishes. Status Survey. pp. x + 461. IUCN/SSC Shark Specialist Group, IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
Garrick, J.A.F. 1982. Sharks of the genus Carcharhinus. NOAA Technical Report NMFS.
Hanfee, F. 1996. The trade in sharks and shark products in India: a preliminary study. The World Trade in Sharks: a Compendium of TRAFFIC's regional studies. Volume II, pp. 605–637. TRAFFIC International, Cambridge, UK.
IUCN. 2009. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2009.2). Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 3 November 2009).
IUCN SSC Shark Specialist Group. Specialist Group website. Available at: http://www.iucnssg.org/.
Killam, K.A. 1987. The reproductive biology, age, and growth of the blacktip shark, Carcharhinus limbatus (Valenciennes) near Tampa Bay, Florida. M.Sc. Thesis, University of South Florida.
Killam, K.A. and Parsons, G.R. 1989. Age and growth of the blacktip shark, Carcharhinus limbatus, near Tampa Bay, Florida. Fishery Bulletin 87(4): 845–857.
Last, P.R. and Stevens, J.D. 2009. Sharks and Rays of Australia, 2nd edition. CSIRO, Melbourne, Australia.
Smith, S.E., Au, D.W. and Show, C. 1998. Intrinsic rebound potentials of 26 species of Pacific sharks. Marine and Freshwater Research 49(7): 663–678.
Walker, P., Cavanagh, R.D., Ducrocq, M. and Fowler, S.L. 2005. Regional Overview. Northeast Atlantic (Including Mediterranean and Black Sea). In: S.L. Fowler, R.D. Cavanagh, M. Camhi, G.H. Burgess, G.M. Cailliet, S.V. Fordham, C.A. Simpfendorfer and J.A. Musick (eds), Sharks, Rays and Chimaeras: The Status of the Chondrichthyan Fishes, pp. 71-94. IUCN SSC Shark Specialist Group. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
|Citation:||Burgess, H. G. & Branstetter, S. 2009. Carcharhinus limbatus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 01 July 2015.|