|Scientific Name:||Capra nubiana F. Cuvier, 1825|
|Taxonomic Notes:||This taxon is sometimes treated as a subspecies of Capra ibex, but is here regarded as a distinct species following Grubb (2005).|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Vulnerable C1+2a(i) ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Alkon, P.U., Harding, L., Jdeidi, T., Masseti, M., Nader, I., de Smet, K., Cuzin, F. & Saltz, D.|
|Reviewer(s):||Festa-Bianchet, M. & Harris, R. (Caprinae Red List Authority)|
This species is listed as Vulnerable under criteria C1 and C2a(i). There is currently a lack of population data for some parts of the range of the Nubian Ibex; however, it is estimated that there are less than 10,000 mature individuals. There is a continuing decline rate estimated at 10% over two generations (generation length estimated at 8 years).
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||This species occurs in Egypt east of the Nile, north-east Sudan, northern Ethiopia and western Eritrea, Israel, west Jordan, scattered locations in western and central Saudi Arabia, scattered locations in Yemen, and in southern Oman (Grubb 2005). It is extinct in Lebanon (not mapped) and Syria (not mapped; however, there is one introduced population).|
In Africa, Nubian Ibex exist as small isolated populations in the Eastern Desert and Red Sea Mountains of Egypt. Confirmed ibex occurrences in Egypt’s Eastern Desert are: Moattum/Qattamiya hills, Gabal Attaqa, El Galala El Bahariya Plateau, and El Galala El Quiblia Plateau (Saleh, in Alkon in press). Ibex also occur throughout the Red Sea Mountains of Egypt, from Gabal Gharib in the north to Elba near the Sudan border (Alkon in press). Recent records in Egypt’s Sinai Peninsula come from Gabal El Maghara, Gabal El Halal and Gabal Yalag in north Sinai, the El Tih Plateau in central Sinai, and at many sites in the south Sinai mountains (Saleh and Basuony 1998). A discussion of the historical ecology and biogeography of the Nubian Ibex in Egypt from 1800 to the present day is given by Manlius (2001).
In Sudan, small Nubian Ibex populations were observed at Erkawit, Jebel Ashat and Sherik Gebel during a 1990 survey (Nimir 1997), and the species likely occurs elsewhere in the country’s Red Sea hills (I.M. Hashim, in Alkon in press).
Although previously recorded near the Sudan border, there are no confirmed recent records available for Eritrea (Hillman and Yohannes 1997, D. Zinner pers. comm.). Nubian Ibex had been reported in extreme northern Ethiopia (Yalden et al. 1984), but the only recent record is an unconfirmed report from the Tendaho Estates area in east-central Ethiopia near the Djibouti border (Hillman et al. 1997).
In Israel, its former range is believed to approximate the present natural distribution of ibex, although populations were probably smaller prior to the 1960s. Today, ibex naturally occur in three major centers comprising mountainous and steep terrain in eastern and southern Israel: Judean desert, Negev, and Elat mountains. Substantial interchange of animals is likely within each of the major ranges, and is also likely between portions of the Judean desert and Negev populations. Ibex inhabiting the Elat mountains may be separated from other ibex in Israel, but more research is required to define connections among ibex populations in the country (Shkedy and Saltz 2000). The small, population of the Golan (Israeli occupied Syria) represents re-introduction.
In Jordan, ibex is currently confined to remote areas of rugged, mountainous terrain from the north-eastern escarpment of the Dead Sea, south along the Rift valley to Wadi Araba, and further south-east in the mountains of Wadi Rum (Hays and Bandak 1997). It is also recorded from Wadi Zerqa Main and Aqaba (Harrison 1968a).
In Lebanon, ibex were previously found in Barouk, the Ammiq mountains and on Mount Harmon, northern Lebanon until the early 1900s; they are now extinct (Serhal 1997).
Nubian Ibex may have occurred in the western Hajr mountains in northern Oman (Harrison 1967, 1968a; Harrison and Bates 1991), but as this was a single observation and there have been none since, it is possible that they are now absent or never existed as a viable population in this region. Currently, its known distribution is patchy and extends along the coastline in rugged terrain, south from the Huquf escarpment (approximately 21”N) to the border with Yemen. Five populations are known within this region, based on isolated sightings: Huquf Janaba Hills, Ra’s Madrakah, Jabal Samhan, and Jabal al Qamr. Recent evidence from radio-tracked individuals caught and released on the Huquf escarpment indicates that there is some movement of animals between the Huquf and Janaba Hills populations (Daly et al. 1997).
In Saudi Arabia, few systematic censuses have been made. Most data come from brief aerial and ground reconnaissance surveys made to locate populations. Among the 15 sites where ibex have been found, major concentrations occur in the western mountains of the Arabian shield, with isolated populations located in the north, north-central and central regions. Only scattered observations have been made in the south. The highest densities appear to be in Jabal Qaraqar, Hemah Fiqrah and Hawtat bani Tamim Ibex Reserve (Habibi and Tatwany 1997).
Based on records provided in Harrison (1968), Nubian Ibex was found in Syria in the Jabal ash-Sharqi mountain ranges north of Dimasq which run southwest-northeast, as far as Halab (Aleppo) and to just south of Tadmur (Palmyra), presumably in the Jabal al Khunayzir. There are apparently no recent records of the species in Syria (Masseti 2004), and it is believed to be extinct (Serhal 1997), apart from the re-introduced population in the Golan Heights. A female from the mountains east of El Qaryatein was collected in 1905 (Masseti 2004), and the last published record of a sighting is that of Maydon (1930) who recorded the species in the Jabal el Abtar, southwest of Tadmor (Harrison 1968a, Harrison and Bates 1991), although according to recent interviews with local people at Palmyra the species may have survived in the Tadmor region into the second half of the 1900s (G. Serra pers. comm. in Masseti 2004).
This ibex was also previously reported from the mountains in south-east Yemen which join with the Dhofar mountains of Oman (Harrison 1968). No recent surveys of current distributions have been made; however, it appears to still exist in greatly reduced numbers in the remotest regions of the dry mountains of the Hadramawt in the east (C. Stuart, in Shackleton 1997).
Native:Egypt; Israel; Jordan; Oman; Saudi Arabia; Sudan; Yemen
Introduced:Syrian Arab Republic
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||There is currently a lack of population data for some parts of the range of the Nubian Ibex; however, it is estimated that there are less than 2,500 mature individuals. More information is needed on population trends in the past, present, and future.|
On the Sinai Peninsula, between 1977 and 1979, the population in the north has been estimated at around 50 animals, in the central region around 200, and in the south 155 (Baharav and Meiboom 1981). There are no reliable estimates of overall population size in Egypt, but they are thought to be stable; about 200 Ibex inhabit the El Galala El Baharia Plateau (M. Saleh, in Alkon in press). There are no estimates available for Eritrea, Ethiopia or Sudan.
In Israel, comprehensive, one-day ground surveys (supplemented by sporadic aerial counts) have been conducted annually each autumn within all major ibex ranges since 1981 by the Nature Reserves Authority. Total counts were relatively stable during 1982 to 1987, with a mean total count of 1,064 + 147 during this period, and a mean adult female-kid ratio of 2.2:1. Count data suggest that ibex are at carrying capacity in their major ranges. Given that the survey probably underestimates actual numbers, the total estimated number of Nubian Ibex in Israel is about 1,500, of which 800 are in the Judean desert, 500 in the Negev, and 150 in the Elat mountains. Recent counts indicate a decline in all three subpopulations (D. Saltz pers. comm.). No informed estimate is available for the size of the re-introduced Golan Heights population in Israeli-occupied Syria (Alkon 1997).
In Jordan, a captive breeding program was started in 1989 to augment a small relict population in danger of extirpation (L. Harding pers. comm.). Captive-bred animals were released into the Wadi Mujib Nature Reserve beginning in 1998, and the programme was terminated in 2006 when the wild population was estimated at approximately 200 (L. Harding pers. comm.). They are now believed to be stable in numbers (Maher Abu Jafar pers. comm.). A second population further south, centered on the Dana Nature Reserve, has been increasing any may be larger than the Wadi Mujib population, although no estimates of numbers are available (L. Harding pers. comm.). The former population in the Rum mountains has not been confirmed in recent years (L. Harding pers. comm.).
In Oman, no data are available on the size, demographic status or trends of the total Nubian Ibex population. Ibex distributions and numbers are most likely determined to a large extent by the temporal and spatial rainfall pattern, particularly in the most arid areas. However, surveys have been completed only in the Huquf escarpment area, where numbers appear to have been stable over the last five years. In the coastal hills to the south of this population, the status of ibex is unknown (but see Sale, 1980). Generally, densities are likely to be similar to the Huquf escarpment where there are estimated to be one ibex/km² (Daly et al. 1997).
In Saudi Arabia, there are no population estimates, but overall, numbers are believed to be decreasing in areas where ibex are not protected. In contrast, ibex numbers are believed to be increasing in the two protected areas where recruitment is satisfactory and females appear to give birth to twins frequently (Habibi and Tatwany 1997). In the Hawtat bani Tamim Ibex Reserve, the most recent census (Spring 2007) recorded 400 individuals (I. Nader pers. comm.).
There are no estimates for Yemen (Shackleton 1997).
The Nubian Ibex is extinct in Syria, and in Lebanon due to large scale habitat destruction and abuse of hunting regulations (Serhal 1997a,b).
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Nubian Ibex occur in rocky, desert mountains with steep slopes and hills (which provide vital escape routes), and associated plateaus, canyons and wadis. They consume a wide array of herbaceous and woody plants.|
|Generation Length (years):||8|
Competition with livestock, camels and feral donkeys is a general threat throughout the range (Amer 1997; Hays and Bandak 1997; Daly et al. 1997). In Egypt, the availability and distribution of waterholes is likely to be a major factor in the condition of populations, and both may fluctuate from year to year (Amer 1997). Water resources are also scarce in Israel and competition for these resources, along with habitat degradation by contamination of water sources, are major potential threats. High levels of tourists at watering, feeding and birthing sites also threatened the population in Israel (Alkon 1997).
Hunting is a threat to the species throughout its range. Poaching definitely occurs in Egypt (Amer 1997) and in Sudan (Nimir 1997), and is implicated in the disappearance of this species from some parts of its range in Egypt (Manlius 2001). Poaching also occurs in Jordan, although this threat has decreased recently (Hays and Bandak 1997). In Saudi Arabia, a general ban on hunting ibex was promulgated in 1979; however, it is difficult to control poaching, especially in remote areas (Habibi and Tatwany 1997). The species is effectively protected from hunting in Israel (Alkon 1997). In Yemen, automatic weapons are owned by many people throughout the country and hunting is probably the greatest threat to the ibex (Shackleton 1997).
Habitat loss and degradation threatens the species in much of its range. In Saudi Arabia, Nubian Ibex continue to be threatened by habitat degradation, particularly through the extension of roads, livestock encroachment and other development pressures in and around its remaining refuges (Habibi and Tatwany 1997). Bedouin access to isolated regions where ibex occur means that the habitat and water resources of otherwise secure populations are threatened.
Some predation by leopards (Panthera pardus) has been reported in Israel, and reproductive success and juvenile survival vary from year to year, probably depending largely on the nutritional status of adult females. No significant effects of parasites or diseases have been detected among wild populations (Alkon 1997). In Jordan, the small size of remaining ibex populations and their isolation from each other is also a cause for concern (Hays and Bandak 1997). In Saudi Arabia, continued displacement and isolation of ibex populations will further limit opportunities for dispersal and genetic interchange between scattered populations (Habibi and Tatwany 1997).
The Nubian Ibex is protected by Agricultural Law No. 53/l 966 and amendment 1012 July 1992. Hunting of this species is totally forbidden, as mentioned in article 117 of the Agricultural Law. Nubian Ibex occur in several protected areas in Egypt: Gebel Elba Conservation Area; Assiut University Protected Area, where it was rediscovered in 1984 (Krausman and Shaw 1986); and in Jabal (Gebel) Musa and Jabal Katrina Wildlife Reserve in southern Central Sinai. The Gebel Elba Conservation Area falls into the disputed Sudan Government Area in the extreme south-east corner of Egypt, along the border with Sudan. With both Egypt and Sudan claiming the area, any legislation requires the agreement of both parties for it to be realized. Hunting, although banned in the protected area, does take place in at least one part of this area, because neither government claims authority over this section (Amer 1997).
Amer (1997) proposed a number of conservation measures, including: considering government control for Assiut University Protected Area to ensure full protection because it is one of the few remaining areas where Nubian Ibex definitely still survive outside the Sinai and Egypt has full control (the site is in the Eastern desert and includes the Wadi El Assiuti and its junction with the Wadi Habib; reactivating the proposal to make Gebel Elba a National Park in co-operation with the Egyptian and Sudanese governments.
Between 1980 and 1985, 10 to 44 hunting licenses were issued annually for hunters to kill Nubian Ibex in the Red Sea region. Licenses continued to be issued until 1989, despite a three-year hunting ban introduced in 1988. Due to prior commitments with foreign hunters, hunting Nubian Ibex was exempted from the ban in 1989. Neither the number of licenses issued, nor the areas open for hunting, were based on any scientific surveys to determine if hunting could be sustained by the populations. Poaching is also practiced by nomads who hunt with dogs and traditional weapons. According to the Wildlife Laws, both sheep and ibex can be hunted with an ordinary hunting license. Since January 1992, Nubian Ibex are included as a Schedule II species under the Wildlife Conservation Act; however, this allows the species to be legally hunted with a special hunting permit (Nimir 1997). Nubian Ibex occur in three protected areas along the Red Sea coast: in the Erkawit and Sinkat Sanctuaries, and in the Tokar Game Reserve. As in Egypt, the Gebel Elba Conservation Area is an important site for the conservation of this species, but falls into the disputed Sudan Government Administration Area along the border between the extreme south-east corner of Egypt and the north-east part of the Sudan. Sudan and Egypt are currently negotiating the future of this area, and settlement of this dispute will be required before any form of legislation is realized (Nimir 1997).
Nimir (1997) proposed the following conservation measurees: 1) Increasing protection to effective levels, especially in the protected areas; 2) Placing the species in Schedule I to ensure its full legal protection; and 3) carrying out the Sudan Government’s proposed population estimate and ecological studies, so that a comprehensive conservation management plan for Nubian Ibex can be developed.
The Yob Reserve was legally established under the Italian post-World War II administration in 1959 (Gazetta Eritrea No. 4, p. 3 1,16 March 1959), primarily for the conservation of Nubian Ibex (where the species is believed to have occurred) and other desert wildlife species. However, no formal development occurred, and little is known of this area since that time. Nubian Ibex were never recorded in either of the other two protected areas established in Eritrea in 1959: the Nakfa and Gash-Setit Wildlife Reserves (Hillman and Yohannes 1997).
Conservation measures proposed (Hillman and Yohannes 1997) include: 1) carrying out detailed surveys for Nubian ibex in northern Eritrea from the ground and from the air as soon as resources are available; and 2) based on these data, develop a conservation strategy for the species.
The Israel Nature Reserve Authority designates the species as “vulnerable” within their principal arid-zone range, and as “rare” in Mediterranean parts of the country (i.e., Golan Heights). In Israel, it is fully protected and the law is effectively enforced. At least 80% of ibex range is within 15 officially or designated protected areas, most of which are administered by the Nature Reserves Authority. Designated Nature Reserves await formal establishment, but are effectively managed as Nature Reserves. Most established Nature Reserves had tenures of various durations as “designated” reserves prior to their final establishment. Recent and current management involves annual, autumn 1-day ground surveys of ibex in all major ranges (except Golan), protection of populations and habitats, and encouraging research. A management plan has been developed for Avdat Canyon National Park which supports a large population of ibex in the northern Negev highlands (Ayal 1992). Artificial food patches have been maintained at the En Gedi Nature Reserve in the Judean desert, but are subject to increasing conflicts with agriculture for irrigation water (Alkon 1997)
Conservation measures proposed (Alkon 1997) include: 1) Develop formal management programs or conservation biology plans for ibex. Up to the present, conservation measures have emphasized the protection of ibex populations and their habitats, and monitoring the species’ status. It is recommended that these include considerations of population dynamics, population genetics, habitat requirements and human disturbance. This would involve development and implementation of a more active management/conservation program that would include specific goals and objectives, accurate monitoring of the numerical and genetic statuses and dynamics of ibex populations, management of water resources and other key habitat components (e.g. nutritional ecology and habitat requirements; population dynamics and genetics; effects of human disturbances on ibex behavior and habitat quality). 2) Consider augmenting natural water sources for ibex habitat improvement. Nubian ibex are highly dependent on water, and the lush vegetation around desert springs and other water sources may be important food sources. Present ibex ranges are centered around permanent water sources, and their protection and quality should be a paramount management objective. Conflicts of water allocation between wildlife needs and agricultural uses have arisen in the En Gedi Nature Reserve in the Judean desert. 3) Initiate a study of the dynamics of the large populations in the Judean desert (~800 animals) and the Negev highlands (~400 animals) that presently appear secure but which are poorly understood. Preliminary analyses indicate that recent annual fluctuations are around 30% density dependent and 70% related to stochastic environmental variation. Due to the small size of the populations, the Eilat mountains and Golan populations may be especially vulnerable to extirpation, but nothing is known of their demography. One study (Alkon and Kohlmann 1990) commissioned by the Nature Reserves Authority indicates that the current annual ibex surveys may be deficient in accurately estimating densities and structure of ibex populations, and recommends that alternative monitoring methods be considered. 4) Launch a research program on the genetic diversity among populations. This will be essential for planning appropriate population management programs. The Sede Boqer segment of the Negev highlands population contains substantial genetic diversity (Stiiwe et al. 1992), but nothing is known of the genetics of other populations, or the extent of gene transfer among populations. Present data indicate some movement and possible interchange among elements of the Judean desert and Negev highlands populations, but the Golan and Elat mountains populations are probably genetically isolated. 5) Evaluate the effects of visitors on ibex ecology. Tourism and nature study are intense at several nature reserves and parks in the Judean desert and Negev highlands which are important for ibex. Studies of other wild animals and of Nubian ibex in the Negev highlands (Hakham 1985; Stone 1989) suggest that park visitors may disrupt ibex behavior and movement patterns, and exclude ibex from desired sites. The biological and management consequences of human-ibex interactions are complex. On one hand, Nubian ibex appear to have adapted well to some human activities, and their presence has enhanced the value of the parks and reserves for human visitors, thus promoting public awareness and support of natural values. Conversely, the threshold levels at which human disturbance may adversely impact habitat carrying capacity are unknown, and are likely to vary seasonally, temporally, by location, and with the type of human activity.
Until 1978, the ibex was legally hunted in Jordan, but since then it has received full protection and a total ban on hunting this species was put into effect indefinitely. Ibex occur in three protected areas: Wadi Mujib Wildlife Reserve (212 km²), which includes the escarpment area of the Rift valley desert and extends as far as the Dead sea to 400 m below sea level; Dana Wildlife Reserve protecting 150 km² in the Rift valley mountains; and Wadi Rum Reserve extending over 570 km² of the precipitous rocky outcrops of the Rum mountains in southern Jordan (though the continued presence of the species in this area needs confirmation). It is also present in the proposed Jebel Masadi Wildlife Reserve, which covers 460 km² from the mountainous plateau and escarpment, down to the Rift valley desert (Hays and Bandak 1997).
The San Diego Wild Animal Park sent 22 young ibex to Jordan in July 1989, to which was added a locally captured juvenile. These animals were housed in a 0.25-0.4 km² enclosure on the slopes of Wadi Mujib. They reproduced well and by 1992, there were 34 individuals, increasing to 68 adults in 1995, when 24 births raised the total captive population to 90. The RSCN began releasing surplus animals into the wild in 1998 and continued until 2006 when the program was terminated becaused the wild population in Wadi Mujib Nature Reserve was judged stable at about 200 animals (L. Harding pers. comm.).
Conservation measures proposed (Hays and Bandak 1997): 1) Maintain the current strict measures of hunting control to ensure the survival of the species in Jordan. 2) Conduct field studies to assess the status of existing populations and to determine factors controlling their demography. 3) Census the population in Wadi Mujib Wildlife Reserve, annually, or preferably seasonally, to evaluate the results of the supplemental release into the Reserve. If Jordan’s wildlife reserves are to effectively protect the remaining ibex populations, the support of local people is essential and their community grazing rights must be adequately addressed. To these ends, it would be desirable to initiate a study to determine sustainable levels of domestic livestock grazing within potential ibex habitat. Furthermore, there is an urgent need for trained personnel, together with continued support from international conservation organizations and donor agencies.
In Lebanon, where the species is now extinct, a re-introduction programme has been proposed. The Ministry of State for the Environment is establishing a system of protected areas in which to place the offspring from captive breeding units. These areas include Mashgara National Park (3,500 ha) to be in the western Beqaa Valley, and the Barouk multiple use area in central Lebanon. Both these areas are very suitable for Caprinae re-introductions, but both species should not be released into the same reserve to avoid possible interbreeding. However, none of these proposals will be feasible until the armed political unrest ceases or declines significantly (Serhal 1997).
Fully protected by law (Ministry of Diwan Affairs, Ministerial Decision No. 4 1976) throughout the country, but the actual level of protection varies somewhat, in part due to the rugged and isolated terrain, and also to local conditions. Nubian Ibex occur in no guarded areas, but in central Oman, notably on the Huquf escarpment, ibex are protected by the guards of the Arabian Oryx Re-introduction Project based at Yalooni in the Governorate of the Central Region. Around the Huqf escarpment, the local Harasis tribes are more amenable to conservation and poaching is minimal. In the Governorate of Dhofar, there is no active enforcement system of the law protecting the ibex, although local individuals make voluntary reports of poaching activities from time to time, some of which are followed up by the local authorities. Both the Huquf escarpment and the main portions of the Jabal Samhan (Dhofar mountains) were included in a 1987 proposal for a national system of Nature Conservation Areas (IUCN 1986). Research is currently being conducted in the central region on the Huquf escarpment and is planned to continue for several years (Daly et al. 1997).
Conservation measures proposed by Daly et al. (1997) include: 1) Determine numbers and distributions throughout the taxon’s range. The first priority area is the eastern range of the Dhofar mountains, the Jabal Samhan, where large concentrations of ibex, as well as conservation problems, have been reported (e.g., Sale 1980). A survey of this area should also include identification of conservation and research needs. Second, the Huquf escarpment study should be continued, focusing particularly on population dynamics, because this population is probably the easiest to study due to its proximity to the oryx project; 2) Surveys for ibex should also be conducted in the Hajr mountains in conjunction with work on Arabian tahr, to determine if it occurs in these northern ranges; 3) Initiate ecological studies throughout the ibex’s range to enable appropriate conservation plans to be developed for this species. These should also include a study of the level of competition between ibex and feral donkeys; 4) Give priority to the establishment of the six protected areas recommended in the 1986 IUCN proposal which would provide protection for ibex populations and their habitat. The proposed protected areas with ibex are: Central Region - Janabah Hills National Nature Reserve (290,000 ha), Janabah Coast National Scenic Reserve (69,000 ha) AZ Zahr National Scenic Reserve (225,000 ha); Southern Region - Arkad National Resource Reserve (264,000 ha) Jabal Samhan National Nature Reserve (346,000 ha) and Shuwaymiyah National Resource Reserve (60,000 ha).
Legally protected by a hunting by-law passed in 1979 which, along with gazelles, gives the species total protection. This law, however, can be difficult to enforce in some remote areas. In Saudi Arabia, it occurs in two official reserves; At Tubayq Reserve in the north, and the Ibex Reserve in Hawtat bani Tamim in the east-central region. Ibex also inhabit the Ahmadi tribal hema (Hemah Fiqrah) in the Western Mountain chain which may become an officially delineated reserve in the future (Habibi and Tatwany 1997).
Conservation measures proposed include (Habibi and Tatwany 1997): 1) Vigorously enforce the hunting ban and create legislation banning the movement of Bedouins and ‘hunters into protected areas, to halt the indiscriminate poaching of ibex; 2) Launch an education programme in the school system in an effort to inform the public about the merits of conservation, and of the role which wildlife plays in the stability of fragile ecosystems; 3) The current priority of NCWCD must be to establish contiguous protected areas in the mountain chain of western Saudi Arabia, which constitute the major habitats of Nubian ibex. In Syria, Legislative Decree No. 152 (1970) covers hunting regulations and the provision of hunting councils. In 1979, Legislative Decree No. 50 banned all hunting for a 5-year period. Whether this is still in effect is unknown.
Syria has no protected areas and hunting regulations are not enforced. It was believed that two areas, each about 20,000 ha, had been set aside one in 1968 the other in 1983, as areas for “le patrimoine animal” (Serhal 1997).
Nubian Ibex reportedly occur in proposed Jabal al-Ara’is Reserve, in Abin Province (Mahir Abu Ja’far 1984).
Abu Eid, O., Hamidan, N. and Harding, L. E. In prep.. Re-introduction of the Nubian ibex (Capra ibex nubiana) into the Jordanian desert.
Alkon, P. U. 1997. Israel. In: D. M. Shackleton (ed.), Wild sheep and goats and their relatives. Status survey and conservation action plan for Caprinae, pp. 56-60. IUCN/SSC Caprinae Specialist Group., Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
Alkon, P. U. and Kohlmann, S. G. 1990. Israel’s Annual Nubian Ibex Survey: Analysis, Design Considerations, and Management Recommendations. Final report to Israel Nature Reserves Authority.
Alkon, P. U. In press. Capra nubiana. In: J. S. Kingdon and M. Hoffmann (eds), The Mammals of Africa, Academic Press, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Amer, M. 1997. Egypt. In: D.M. Shackleton (ed.), Wild Sheep and Goats and their Relatives: Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan for Caprinae, pp. 21-26. IUCN/SSC Caprinae Specialist Group, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
Amr, Z., Baker, M. A. and Rifai, L. 2004. Mammals of Jordan. Denisia 14(2): 1-29.
Amr, Z.S. 2000. Jordan Country Study of Biological Diversity. Mammals of Jordan. United Nations Environment Programme and National Library, Amman, Jordan.
Amr, Z. S. and Disi, A. M. 1988. Jordanian Mammals Acquired by the Jordan University Natural History Museum. University of Jordan.
Ayal, Y. 1992. Biological and ecological components of En Avdat National Park and their conservation: management recommendations. Report to the National parks Authority, Mitrani Centre for Desert Ecology, Blaustein Inst. Desert Res., Ben-Gurion Univ. [In Hebrew].
Baharav, D. and Meiboom, U. 1981. The status of the Nubian ibex Capra ibex nubiana in the Sinai Desert. Biological Conservation 20: 91-97.
Budieri, A. 1995. Captive breeding program-biodiversity country study. The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan report for United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and Global Environmental Facility (GEF), Amman, Jordan.
Catullo, G., Ciucci, P., Disi, A. and Boitani, L. 1996. Nubian ibex in southwestern Jordan (Dana Nature Reserve). Oryx 30: 222-224.
Daly, R. H., Gallagher, M. D., Munton, P. N. and Tear, T. H. 1997. Oman. In: D. M. Shackleton (ed.), Wild sheep and goats and their relatives. Status survey and conservation action plan for Caprinae, pp. 65-70. IUCN/SSC Caprinae Specialist Group, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
Gross, J. E., Alkon, P. U. and Demment, M. W. 1995. Grouping patterns and spatial segregation in Nubian ibex. Journal of Arid Environments 30: 423-439.
Grubb, P. 2005. Artiodactyla. In: D.E. Wilson & D.M. Reeder (ed.), Mammal Species of the World. A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed), pp. 637-722. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA.
Habibi, K. 1994. The Desert Ibex: Life history, Ecology and Behaviour of the Nubian Ibex in Saudi Arabia. Immel Publishing Limited.
Habibi, K. and Tatwany, H. 1997. Saudi Arabia. In: D. M. Shackleton (ed.), Wild sheep and goats and their relatives. Status survey and conservation action plan for Caprinae, pp. 70-73. IUCN/SSC Caprinae Specialist Group, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
Hakham, E. 1985. Ibex nursery at Ein Gedi, Israel. Israel - Land and Nature 10.
Harrison, D. L. 1967. Observations on a wild goat, Capra aegagrus (Artiodactyla:Bovidae) from Oman, E. Arabia. Journal of Zoology (London) 151: 27-30.
Harrison, D. L. 1968. The Mammals of Arabia. Ernest Benn Limited, London, UK.
Harrison, D. L. 1968. On three mammals new to the fauna of Oman, Arabia, with the description of a new species of bat. The Mammals of Arabia 32(3): 17-325.
Harrison, D.L. and Bates, P.J.J. 1991. The Mammals of Arabia. Harrison Zoological Museum, Sevenoaks, UK.
Hays, C. and Bandak, N. 1997. Jordan. In: D. M. Shackleton (ed.), Wild sheep and goats and their relatives. Status survey and conservation action plan for Caprinae IUCN/SSC Caprinae Specialist Group, pp. 60-63. IUCN/SSC Caprinae Specialist Group, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
Hillman, J. C. and Yohannes, H. 1997. Eritrea. In: D. M. Shackleton (ed.), Wild sheep and goats and their relatives. Status survey and conservation action plan for Caprinae, pp. 26-27. IUCN, IUCN/SSC Caprinae Specialist Group, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
Hillman, J. C., Hurni, H. and Nievergelt, B. 1997. Ethiopia. In: D. M. Shackleton (ed.), Wild Sheep and Goats and their Relatives. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan for Caprinae, pp. 27-30. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
IUCN. 1986. Sultanate of Oman: proposals for a system of nature conservation areas. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
Kohlmann, S. G. and Alkon, P. U. 1989. Understanding population dynamics of Nubian ibex in Israel: a modelling approach. Israel Journal of Zoology 36: 155.
Kohlmann, S. G., Müller, D. M. and Alkon, P. U. 1996. Antipredator constraints in lactating Nubian ibex. Journal of Mammalogy 77: 1122-1136.
Kotler, B. P., Gross, J. E. and Mitchell, W. A. 1994. Applying patch use to assess aspects of foraging behaviour in Nubian ibex. Journal of Wildlife Management 58: 299–307.
Krausman, P. R. and Shaw, W. W. 1986. Nubian ibex in the Eastern Desert, Egypt.
Mahir abu Ja’fer. 1984. National Parks and Nature Reserves in the Arab World. The Arab League Educational, Cultural and Scientific Organization. Department of Science, Tunis, Tunisia.
Manlius, N. 2001. Historical ecology and biogeography of the Nubian Ibex in Egypt. Belgian Journal of Zoology 131: 159-172.
Masseti, M. 2004. Artiodactyls of Syria. Zoology in the Middle East 33: 139-148.
Maydon, H. C. A. 1930. A wild goose chase. Part II. March 1930. Game and Gun and Country Estate: 132.
Mendelssohn, H. 1990. Nubian ibex (Capra ibex nubiana). In: Parker, S. P. (ed.), Grzimek's Encyclopedia of Mammals, pp. 525-527. McGraw-Hill, New York.
Nimir, M. B. 1997. Sudan - Chapter 4.11. In: D. M. Shackleton (ed.), Wild Sheep and Goats and their Relatives: Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan for Caprinae, pp. 40-45. IUCN/SSC Caprinae Specialist Group, Gland, Switzerland.
Saleh, M. A. and Basuony, M. 1998. A contribution to the mammalogy of the Sinai Peninsula. Mammalia 62: 557–575.
Sale, J. B. 1980. The ecology of the mountain region of Dhofar. Journal of Oman Studies 2: 25-54.
Serhal, A. 1997. Lebanon. In: D. M. Shackleton (ed.), Wild sheep and goats and their relatives, Status survey and conservation action plan for Caprinae, pp. 63-65. IUCN/SSC Caprinae Specialist Group, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
Serhal, A. 1997. Syria. In: D. M. Shackleton (ed.), Wild sheep and goats and their relatives. Status survey and conservation action plan for Caprinae, pp. 73-74. IUCN/SSC Caprinae Specialist Group, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
Shackleton, D.M. 1997. Wild Sheep and Goats and Their Relatives: Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan for Caprinae. IUCN/SSC Caprinae Specialist Group, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
Shackleton, D. M. 1997. Yemen. In: D. M. Shackleton (ed.), Wild sheep and goats and their relatives. Status survey and conservation action plan for Caprinae, pp. 75-76. IUCN/SSC Caprinae Specialist Group, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
Shkedy, Y. and Saltz, D. 2000. Dispersal patterns and fragmentation of Nubian ibex and hyrax populations in Israel. Conservation Biology 14: 200-206.
Stiiwe, M., Scribner, K. T. and Alkon, P. U. 1992. A comparison of genetic diversity in Nubian ibex (Capra ibex nubiana) and Alpine ibex (C. i. ibex). Siiugetierkde 57: 120-123.
Stone, S. 1989. Nubian ibex responses to tourists in a desert canyon park. Department of Natural Research, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA.
Uerpmann, H.-P. 1987. The ancient distribution of ungulate mammals in the Middle East. Dr. Ludwig Reichert Verlag, Wiesbaden.
Yalden, D. W., Largen, M. J. and Kock, D. 1984. Catalogue of the mammals of Ethiopia. 5. Artiodactyla. Monitore zoologico italiano/Italian Journal of Zoology, N.S. Supplemento 19(4): 67-221.
|Citation:||Alkon, P.U., Harding, L., Jdeidi, T., Masseti, M., Nader, I., de Smet, K., Cuzin, F. & Saltz, D. 2008. Capra nubiana. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T3796A10084254.Downloaded on 19 November 2017.|
|Feedback:||If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please provide us with feedback so that we can correct or extend the information provided|