Commidendrum rotundifolium 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Magnoliopsida Asterales Compositae

Scientific Name: Commidendrum rotundifolium
Species Authority: (Roxb.) DC.
Common Name(s):
English Bastard Gumwood
Psiadia rotundifolia (Roxb.) Hook.f.
Solidago rotundifolia Roxb.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Extinct in the Wild ver 3.1
Year Published: 2003
Date Assessed: 2003-04-30
Needs updating
Assessor(s): Cairns-Wicks, R.
Reviewer(s): Cronk, Q. & Clubbe, C. (South Atlantic Island Plants Red List Authority)
C. rotundifolium was thought to have been extinct by the end of the 19th Century with the last known trees growing at Longwood, Black Field and Horse Pasture. However, Stedson Stroud rediscovered this species in 1982 as one tree growing out from a cliff at the southern edge of Horse Pasture. This tree was destroyed by a gale in 1986 and the species is now extinct in the wild.
Previously published Red List assessments:
1998 Extinct in the Wild (EW)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: C. rotundifolium is extinct in the wild.
Countries occurrence:
Regionally extinct:
Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: A tree, formerly common on dry areas, 400 – 520 m. According to Cronk (1989) the Bastard Gumwood was associated with the dry gumwood woodland 300-500 m. and to some extent wet gumwood woodland 500-650 m.
Systems: Terrestrial

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Historically used a fuel wood. Regeneration prevented by browsing livestock.

All trees currently growing at Pounceys are smothered in lichen growth. Lichens are parasitic and will be an additional burden on already weakened trees but they also harbour moth larvae which are known to burrow into living wood (of Redwoods, Gumwood and She Cabbage, RCW pers. obs) further compounding senescence. White Ants Cryptotermes are pests present at both Pounceys and Scotland sites.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Trees have been successfully established in cultivation at Pounceys and the ECS Nursery at Scotland and form the basis of recovery efforts for the species. Seedlings raised in 2002 from seed from tree 8 at Pounceys have now been planted at Barren Ground. However because of barriers to reproduction this species still faces an uncertain future in cultivation unless consistent effort is made to propagate it through seed.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.4. Forest - Temperate
suitability: Unknown  
1. Forest -> 1.5. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
suitability: Unknown  
3. Species management -> 3.4. Ex-situ conservation -> 3.4.1. Captive breeding/artificial propagation

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
In-Place Species Management
  Subject to ex-situ conservation:Yes
In-Place Education
2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.3. Livestock farming & ranching -> 2.3.4. Scale Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing: Past, Unlikely to Return    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

8. Invasive & other problematic species & genes -> 8.1. Invasive non-native/alien species -> 8.1.1. Unspecified species
♦ timing: Past, Unlikely to Return    

Bibliography [top]

Cronk, Q.C.B. 2000. The Endemic Flora of St. Helena. Anthony Nelson Publishers, Oswestry, UK.

Eastwood, A. and Cronk, Q.C.B. 2002. Incompatibility and hybridisation in Commidendrum rotundifolium and C. spurium from St Helena: implications for ex situ management and species recovery. In: A. Eastwood. Evolution and Conservation of Commidendrum and Elaphoglossum from St Helena. Thesis for Doctor of Philosophy, University of Edinburgh.

Eastwood, A., Gibby, M. and Cronk, Q.C.B. 2002. Evolution of St Helena arborescent Astereae (Asteraceae): relationships of the genera Commidendrum and Melanodendron. In: A. Eastwood. Evolution and Conservation of Commidendrum and Elaphoglossum from St Helena. Thesis for Doctor of Philosophy, University of Edinburgh.

Holland, M., Cronk, Q., MacDonald, D. and Holland, M. 1986. The Endemic Flora of St. Helena. The Government of St. Helena, St Helena.

IUCN. 2003. 2003 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 18 November 2003.

Seal, U.S., Maunder, M., Pearce-Kelly, P., Mace, G. and Clark, D. 1993. Conservation assessment and management plan. St. Helena Island. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Citation: Cairns-Wicks, R. 2003. Commidendrum rotundifolium. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2003: e.T37591A10060851. . Downloaded on 31 May 2016.
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