|Scientific Name:||Canis adustus|
|Species Authority:||Sundevall, 1847|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor/s:||Atkinson, R.P.D. & Loveridge, A.J.|
|Reviewer/s:||Sillero-Zubiri, C. & Hoffmann, M. (Canid Red List Authority)|
The Side-striped Jackal occurs in West, Central and southern Africa. Regional estimates of abundance are not available, but from work undertaken in two diverse habitats in Zimbabwe, it seems reasonable to assume the species is common and to estimate a total population in excess of three million. It is likely that the population is at least stable. This species' dietary flexibility and ability to co-exist with humans on the periphery of settlements and towns suggests that populations are only vulnerable in cases of extreme habitat modification or intense disease epidemics.
|Range Description:||The Side-striped Jackal occurs in West, Central and southern Africa (excluding the southernmost part), being replaced in the arid south-west and north-west of the continent by the Black-backed Jackal Canis mesomelas and in North Africa by the Golden Jackal Canis aureus.|
Native:Angola (Angola); Benin; Botswana; Burkina Faso; Burundi; Cameroon; Central African Republic; Chad; Congo; Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Côte d'Ivoire; Ethiopia; Gabon; Gambia; Ghana; Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Kenya; Malawi; Mali; Mauritania; Mozambique; Namibia; Niger; Nigeria; Rwanda; Senegal; Sierra Leone; Somalia; South Africa; Sudan; Swaziland; Tanzania, United Republic of; Togo; Uganda; Zambia; Zimbabwe
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
Regional estimates of abundance are not available, but from work undertaken in two diverse habitats in Zimbabwe, it seems reasonable to assume the species is common and to estimate a total population in excess of three million. It is likely that the population is at least stable. Jackal densities are estimated at around 1/km² in highveld commercial farmland in Zimbabwe (Rhodes et al. 1998), where rural density is probably highest; density estimates from western Zimbabwe were between 0.5–0.8 individuals/km². In Senegal's Sahel, jackal density was estimated at 0.07/km² (Sillero-Zubiri et al. 1997).
This species' dietary flexibility and ability to co-exist with humans on the periphery of settlements and towns suggests that populations are only vulnerable in cases of extreme habitat modification or intense disease epidemics.
|Habitat and Ecology:||Side-striped Jackals occupy a range of habitats, from game areas through farmland to towns within the broad-leaved savanna zones, including wooded habitats, bush, grassland, abandoned cultivation, marshes and montane habitats up to 2,700 m (Kingdon 1977, 1997; Estes 1991). The species tends to avoid very open savanna (although Rowe-Rowe (1992) mentions they occur in open grassland in north-eastern KwaZulu-Natal), thickly wooded areas and arid zones (Stuart and Stuart 1988; Skinner and Smithers 1990; Kingdon 1997), but Kingdon (1997) states that it enters the equatorial forest belt in the wake of human settlement. Side-striped Jackals frequently occur near rural dwellings and farm buildings (Skinner and Smithers 1990; Kingdon 1997), and penetrate peri-urban and urban areas (Liebenberg 1990; Skinner and Smithers 1990). In Botswana, Smithers (1971) recorded them where mean annual rainfall was 400–700 mm, and many authors note that the species occurs in well-watered areas (e.g., Kingdon 1977; Skinner and Smithers 1990). Where Side-striped Jackals occur sympatrically with other jackal species, they may avoid competition by ecological segregation (Fuller et al. 1989). In such areas of sympatry, Side-striped Jackals usually occupy areas of denser vegetation, while Black-backed and Golden Jackals dominate in the more open areas (Loveridge 1999; Loveridge and Macdonald 2003).|
|Major Threat(s):||Side-striped Jackals are persecuted for their role in rabies transmission and their putative role as stock killers. It is unlikely that this persecution has an effect on the overall population, but indiscriminate culling through poisoning could affect local abundance. Side-striped Jackals appear well capable of exploiting urban and suburban habitats, a factor which may help to ensure their persistent occurrence. There appears to be little or no trade in jackal products.|
The species is not listed on the CITES Appendices, and jackals have no legal protection outside protected areas.
It occurs in many protected areas across its range, including Niokola-Koba National Park (NP) in Senegal, Comoe NP in Ivory Coast, Queen Elizabeth NP in Uganda, Serengeti NP in Tanzania, Hwange NP in Zimbabwe, and Kruger NP in South Africa.
Occurrence in captivity
The species has been kept and bred in zoos, but it is not a common zoo exhibit and there are none currently listed on ISIS. Captive animals have been used in experiments testing rabies vaccine efficacy (Bingham et al. 1995).
Gaps in knowledge
For many years the only major studies on the species' ecology remained those of Kingdon (1977) and Smithers and Wilson (1979), with additional observations by other authors. In the last five years, studies conducted in Zimbabwe by the authors have gone some way to increasing our understanding of this jackal species, particularly as concerns their role in rabies transmission. However, in comparison with the better-known black-backed jackal, the side-striped jackal has a much wider distribution, such that there are large parts of their range for which no information on populations or status is available.
Baillie, J. and Groombridge, B. (comps and eds). 1996. 1996 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
Bingham, J., Kappeler, A., Hill, F. W., King, A. A., Perry, B. D. and Foggin, C. M. 1995. Efficacy of SAD (Berne) rabies vaccine given by the oral route in two species of jackal (Canis mesomelas and Canis adustus). Journal of Wildlife Diseases 31: 416-419.
Estes, R. D. 1991. The Behavior Guide to African Mammals: including Hoofed Mammals, Carnivores and Primates. University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, California, USA.
Fuller, T. K., Biknevicius, A. R., Kat, P. W., Van Valkenburgh, B. and Wayne, R. K. 1989. The ecology of three sympatric jackal species in the Rift Valley of Kenya. African Journal of Ecology 27: 313-323.
Kingdon, J. 1977. East African Mammals: An Atlas of Evolution in Africa. Academic Press, London, UK.
Kingdon, J. 1997. The Kingdon Field Guide to African Mammals. Academic Press Natural World, San Diego, California, USA.
Liebenberg, L. 1990. A field guide to the animal tracks and signs of southern Africa. David Philip Publishers, Cape Town, South Africa.
Loveridge, A. J. 1999. Behavioural-ecology and rabies transmission in sympatric Southern African jackals. Wildlife Conservation Research Unit, University of Oxford.
Loveridge, A. J. and Macdonald, D. W. 2003. Niche separation in sympatric jackals (Canis mesomelas and Canis adustus). Journal of Zoology (London) 259: 143-153.
Rhodes, C. J., Atkinson, R. P. D., Anderson R. M. and Macdonald, D. W. 1998. Rabies in Zimbabwe: Reservoir dogs and the implications for disease control. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B, Biological Sciences 353: 999-1010.
Rowe-Rowe, D. T. 1992. The carnivores of Natal. Natal Parks Board, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa.
Sillero-Zubiri, C., Di Silvestre, I., Marino, J. Massaly, S. and Novelli, O. 1997. La distribution et l'état des carnivores dans le Niokolo-Badiar. Rapport No 17, Projet Niokolo Badiar. Communaute Europeene, Dakkar, Senegal.
Sillero-Zubiri, C., Hoffmann, M. and Macdonald, D.W. (eds). 2004. Canids: Foxes, Wolves, Jackals and Dogs. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. IUCN/SSC Canid Specialist Group, IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
Skinner, J. D. and Smithers, R. H. N. (eds). 1990. The Mammals of the Southern African Subregion. University of Pretoria, Pretoria, Transvaal, Republic of South Africa.
Smithers, R. H. N. 1968. A check list and atlas of the mammals of Botswana. The Trustees of The National Museums of Rhodesia, Salisbury, Rhodesia.
Smithers, R. H. N. and Wilson, V. J. 1979. Check List and Atlas of the Mammals of Zimbabwe Rhodesia. Trustees of the National Museums and Monuments of Rhodesia, Salisbury, Rhodesia.
Stuart, C. and Stuart, T. 1988. Field guide to the mammals of southern Africa. Struik Publishers, Cape Town, South Africa.
|Citation:||Atkinson, R.P.D. & Loveridge, A.J. 2008. Canis adustus. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 16 April 2014.|
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