Canis adustus 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Carnivora Canidae

Scientific Name: Canis adustus Sundevall, 1847
Common Name(s):
English Side-striped Jackal
French Le chacal à flancs rayés

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2014
Date Assessed: 2014-03-14
Assessor(s): Hoffmann, M.
Reviewer(s): Sillero-Zubiri, C.
Contributor(s): Loveridge, A. & Atkinson, R.
The Side-striped Jackal occurs widely in sub-Saharan Africa, from West Africa to the horn and south to southern Africa. Regional estimates of abundance are not available, but it seems reasonable to assume the species is common and the population largely stable. This species' dietary flexibility and ability to co-exist with humans on the periphery of settlements and towns suggests that populations are only vulnerable in cases of extreme habitat modification or intense disease epidemics, and high reproductive productivity ensures this species is capable of rapid recovery following population crashes.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:The Side-striped Jackal occurs over much of sub-Saharan Africa, from Gambia and Senegal through the Sahelian regions of West Africa to the Horn, and then southwards into southern Africa (where absent or marginally distributed in the more arid westerly regions) (Loveridge and Macdonald 2013). North-eastern KwaZulu-Natal marks its most southerly occurrence on the continent (Rowe-Rowe 1992).
Countries occurrence:
Angola; Benin; Botswana; Burkina Faso; Burundi; Cameroon; Central African Republic; Chad; Congo; Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Côte d'Ivoire; Ethiopia; Gabon; Gambia; Ghana; Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Kenya; Malawi; Mali; Mauritania; Mozambique; Namibia; Niger; Nigeria; Rwanda; Senegal; Sierra Leone; Somalia; South Africa; Sudan; Swaziland; Tanzania, United Republic of; Togo; Uganda; Zambia; Zimbabwe
Additional data:
Upper elevation limit (metres):2700
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:Jackal densities are estimated at around 1/km² in highveld commercial farmland in Zimbabwe (Rhodes et al. 1998), where rural density is probably highest; density estimates from western Zimbabwe were between 0.5–0.8 individuals/km² (Macdonald et al. 2004). Densities in West Africa are lower; in Senegal's Niokola-Koba National Park, jackal density was estimated at 0.07/km² (Sillero-Zubiri et al. 1997). This species' dietary flexibility and ability to co-exist with humans on the periphery of settlements and towns suggests that populations are only vulnerable in cases of extreme habitat modification or intense disease epidemics.
Current Population Trend:Stable
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Side-striped Jackals occupy a range of habitats, from game areas through farmland to towns within the broad-leaved savanna zones, including wooded habitats, bush, grassland, abandoned cultivation, marshes and montane habitats up to 2,700 m (Kingdon 1977, 1997; Estes 1991). The species tends to avoid very open savanna (although Rowe-Rowe (1992) mentions they occur in open grassland in north-eastern KwaZulu-Natal), thickly wooded areas and arid zones (Stuart and Stuart 1988, Kingdon 1997, Skinner and Chimimba 2005), but Kingdon (1997) states that it enters the equatorial forest belt in the wake of human settlement. Side-striped Jackals frequently occur near rural dwellings and farm buildings (Kingdon 1997, Skinner and Chimimba 2005), and penetrate peri-urban and urban areas (Liebenberg 1990, Skinner and Chimimba 2005). In Botswana, Smithers (1971) recorded them where mean annual rainfall was 400–700 mm, and many authors note that the species occurs in well-watered areas (e.g., Kingdon 1977). 

Where Side-striped Jackals occur sympatrically with other jackal species, they may avoid competition by ecological segregation (Fuller et al. 1989). In such areas of sympatry, Side-striped Jackals usually occupy areas of denser vegetation, while Black-backed and Golden Jackals dominate in the more open areas (Loveridge 1999, Loveridge and Macdonald 2003).

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: There appears to be little or limited trade in jackal products.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Side-striped Jackals are persecuted for their role in rabies transmission and their putative role as stock killers. It is unlikely that this persecution has an effect on the overall population (Bingham and Purchase 2002), but indiscriminate culling through poisoning and snaring could affect local abundance. Side-striped Jackals appear well capable of exploiting urban and suburban habitats, a factor which may help to ensure their persistent occurrence.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: The species is not listed on the CITES Appendices, and jackals have no legal protection outside protected areas. The species occurs in many protected areas across its range, including Niokola-Koba National Park in Senegal, Comoe NP in Côte d'Ivoire, Queen Elizabeth NP in Uganda, Serengeti NP in Tanzania, Hwange NP in Zimbabwe, and Kruger NP in South Africa.

The species has been kept and bred in zoos, but it is not a common zoo exhibit and there are none currently listed on ISIS. Captive animals have been used in experiments testing rabies vaccine efficacy (Bingham et al. 1995).

Studies conducted in Zimbabwe ave gone some way to increasing our understanding of this jackal species, particularly as concerns their role in rabies transmission. However, in comparison with the better-known Black-backed Jackal, the Side-striped Jackal has a much wider distribution, such that there are large parts of their range for which no information on populations or status is available.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.5. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
2. Savanna -> 2.1. Savanna - Dry
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
3. Shrubland -> 3.5. Shrubland - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
3. Shrubland -> 3.7. Shrubland - Subtropical/Tropical High Altitude
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
4. Grassland -> 4.5. Grassland - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.4. Wetlands (inland) - Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.1. Artificial/Terrestrial - Arable Land
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.5. Artificial/Terrestrial - Urban Areas
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
  Action Recovery plan:No
  Systematic monitoring scheme:No
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
  Area based regional management plan:No
  Invasive species control or prevention:Not Applicable
In-Place Species Management
  Harvest management plan:No
  Successfully reintroduced or introduced beningly:No
  Subject to ex-situ conservation:No
In-Place Education
  Subject to recent education and awareness programmes:No
  Included in international legislation:No
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:No
5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.3. Persecution/control
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Minority (<50%) ♦ severity:Negligible declines ⇒ Impact score:Low Impact: 4 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

Bibliography [top]

Baillie, J. and Groombridge, B. (comps and eds). 1996. 1996 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Bingham, J., Kappeler, A., Hill, F. W., King, A. A., Perry, B. D. and Foggin, C. M. 1995. Efficacy of SAD (Berne) rabies vaccine given by the oral route in two species of jackal (Canis mesomelas and Canis adustus). Journal of Wildlife Diseases 31: 416-419.

Estes, R.D. 1991. The Behavior Guide to African Mammals: including Hoofed Mammals, Carnivores and Primates. University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, California, USA.

Fuller, T. K., Biknevicius, A. R., Kat, P. W., Van Valkenburgh, B. and Wayne, R. K. 1989. The ecology of three sympatric jackal species in the Rift Valley of Kenya. African Journal of Ecology 27: 313-323.

IUCN. 2014. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.1. Available at: (Accessed: 12 June 2014).

Kingdon, J. 1977. East African Mammals: An Atlas of Evolution in Africa. Volume IIIA (Carnivores). Academic Press, London, UK.

Kingdon, J. 1997. The Kingdon Field Guide to African Mammals. Academic Press, San Diego, California, USA.

Liebenberg, L. 1990. A field guide to the animal tracks and signs of southern Africa. David Philip Publishers, Cape Town, South Africa.

Loveridge, A. J. 1999. Behavioural-ecology and rabies transmission in sympatric Southern African jackals. Wildlife Conservation Research Unit, University of Oxford.

Loveridge, A. J. and Macdonald, D. W. 2003. Niche separation in sympatric jackals (Canis mesomelas and Canis adustus). Journal of Zoology (London) 259: 143-153.

Rhodes, C. J., Atkinson, R. P. D., Anderson R. M. and Macdonald, D. W. 1998. Rabies in Zimbabwe: Reservoir dogs and the implications for disease control. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B, Biological Sciences 353: 999-1010.

Rowe-Rowe, D.T. 1992. The Carnivores of Natal. Natal Parks Board, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa.

Sillero-Zubiri, C., Di Silvestre, I., Marino, J. Massaly, S. and Novelli, O. 1997. La distribution et l'état des carnivores dans le Niokolo-Badiar. Rapport No 17, Projet Niokolo Badiar. Communaute Europeene, Dakkar, Senegal.

Sillero-Zubiri, C., Hoffmann, M. and Macdonald, D.W. (eds). 2004. Canids: Foxes, Wolves, Jackals and Dogs. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. IUCN/SSC Canid Specialist Group, IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Skinner, J.D. and Chimimba, C.T. (eds). 2005. The Mammals of the Southern African Subregion. Cambridge University Press, United Kingdom, Cambridge.

Smithers, R.H.N. 1968. A check list and atlas of the mammals of Botswana. The Trustees of The National Museums of Rhodesia, Salisbury, Rhodesia.

Smithers, R.H.N. and Wilson, V.J. 1979. Check List and Atlas of the Mammals of Zimbabwe Rhodesia. Trustees of the National Museums and Monuments of Rhodesia, Salisbury, Rhodesia.

Stuart, C. and Stuart, T. 1988. Field guide to the mammals of southern Africa. Struik Publishers, Cape Town, South Africa.

Citation: Hoffmann, M. 2014. Canis adustus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2014: e.T3753A46254734. . Downloaded on 21 June 2018.
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