|Scientific Name:||Delonix pumila|
|Species Authority:||Du Puy, Phillipson & R.Rabev.|
Poinciana adansonioides R.Vig.
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Endangered B1ab(iii,iv,v)+2ab(iii,iv,v) ver 3.1|
Delonix pumila is listed as Endangered since its extent of occurrence is less than 5,000 km² and its area of occupancy is less than 500 km²; genetic studies show that the species consists of a single subpopulation (=location); and habitat continues to decline in quality and extent, and probably in the number of mature individuals due to the effect of harvesting, population expansion and habitat destruction. It is also known to be very slow-growing, and so will have less chance of adapting to these pressures.
|Range Description:||D. pumila is endemic to a small region around Toliara in the southwestern part of Madagascar. It is found near the hill ‘La Table’ approximately 25 km east of Toliara and along the adjacent escarpment edge of the Mahafaly Plateau extending to the area just south of Onilahy river. A collection from 2006 from the Zombitse area (Tefy 919) has been misidentified as D. pumila. Based on the distribution of herbarium specimens, the extent of occurrence (EOO) is 311 km² and the area of occupancy (AOO) is 93 km². It is recorded from sea level up to 160 m.|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Genetic population analysis shows that the species consists of a single interbreeding population. Only 2% of the genetic variation is distributed within sample sites, and 98% are distributed between different sample sites. Genetically D. pumila contains low levels of genetic diversity compared to other species in Delonix s.l. (Rivers et al. 2011). New collections (from 2007/2008) show that the largest subpopulation exists along the main road into Toliara; at the other known localities much smaller stands were found.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||D. pumila is a dwarf, deciduous shrub-like tree less than 3 m tall. It is found within the spiny forest and coastal bushland with succulent species of Euphorbia on limestone rock (Du Puy et al. 1995, 2002). It is slow-growing, and thought to be pollinated by moths due to its night opening flowers, white petals with long dark stamens and an upper petal with a narrow tubular nectariferous claw (Du Puy et al. 2002).|
|Use and Trade:||The species can have a caudiciform trunk and is therefore grown by collectors as an ornamental. There may be trade in wild-collected plants.|
|Major Threat(s):||The natural vegetation where D. pumila is found is under threat from widespread exploitation for firewood and charcoal production. Selective logging, increased cultivation and grazing of livestock are also leading to further degradation of the habitat (Moat and Smith 2007). The rate of degradation has been exacerbated in recent years and the naturally slow growth and regeneration of the spiny forest is putting the endemic species of the area at particular risk (WWF 2001). The spiny forest is one of the primary vegetation types in Madagascar that is declining significantly with an estimated rate of loss of 1.2% per year (Harper et al. 2007, MEFT et al. 2009). Also, the main population of the species exists close to one of the largest and expanding towns in Madagascar and may be impacted by road widening. The species may also be collected from the wild and sold as an ornamental internationally. Climate change modelling predicted little change in climatically suitable range by 2100 (Rivers et al. 2011).|
|Conservation Actions:||D. pumila is found in a proposed protected area (Onilahy), although the effectiveness of this proposed protection is not known. Seed collections have been made and are held by the Millennium Seed Bank (MSB, Wakehurst Place, UK) as well as in-country by Silo National des Graines Forestières (SNGF). Botanic garden collections exist according to BGCI (www.bgci.org).|
Du Puy, D.J., Labat, J.-N., Rabevohitra, R., Villiers, J.-F., Bosser, J. and Moat, J. 2002. The Leguminosae of Madagascar. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, UK.
Du Puy, D.J., Phillipson, P. and Rabevohitra, R. 1995. The genus Delonix (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae: Caesalpinieae) in Madagascar. Kew Bulletin 50: 445-475.
Harper, G.J., Steininger, M.K., Tucker, C.J., Juhn, D. and Hawkins, F. 2007. Fifty years of deforestation and forest fragmentation in Madagascar. Environmental Conservation 34: 325-333.
IUCN. 2014. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.1. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 12 June 2014).
MEFT, UNEP and CI. 2009. Evolution de la couverture de forêts naturelles a Madagascar, 1990-2000-2005.
Moat, J. and Smith, P. 2007. Atlas of the Vegetation of Madagascar. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, UK.
Rivers, M.C., Brummitt, N.A., Nic Lughadha, E. and Meagher, T.R. 2011. Genetic variation in Delonix s.l. (Leguminosae) in Madagascar revealed by AFLPs: fragmentation, conservation status and taxonomy. Conservation Genetics 12: 1333-1344.
World Wildlife Fund (WWF). 2001. Terrestrial Ecoregions - Madagascar spiny thickets (AT1311). Available at: http://www.worldwildlife.org/wildworld/profiles/terrestrial/at/at1311_full.html. (Accessed: 19 Sept).
World Wildlife Fund (WWF). 2001. Terrestrial Ecoregions - Madagascar succulent woodlands (AT1312). Available at: http://www.worldwildlife.org/wildworld/profiles/terrestrial/at/at1312_full.html. (Accessed: 19 Sept).
|Citation:||Rivers, M. 2014. Delonix pumila. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 25 May 2015.|
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