Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Primates Callitrichidae

Scientific Name: Callimico goeldii
Species Authority: (Thomas, 1904)
Common Name(s):
English Goeldi’s Monkey, Callimico, Goeldi's Tamarin, Goeldi's Marmoset
Spanish Chichilo, Marimonito, Mico-de-goeldii, Mono Goeldi, Mono Negro, Pichico Negro, Tití De Goeldi
French Tamarin De Goeldi, Tamarin Sauteur
Taxonomic Notes: A monotypic genus. Recent genetic studies of the captive population, and the indication of outbreeding depression have aroused suspicion that their may be more than one species in this genus (Vàsàrhelyi 2002).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable A3c ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-06-30
Assessor(s): Cornejo, F.
Reviewer(s): Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority)
Listed as Vulnerable as there is reason to believe the species will decline by at least 30% over the coming 18 years (three generations) due primarily to habitat loss.
Previously published Red List assessments:
2003 Near Threatened (NT)
2000 Vulnerable (VU)
1996 Vulnerable (VU)
1994 Rare (R)
1990 Rare (R)
1988 Rare (R)
1986 Rare (R)
1982 Rare (R)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Callimico goeldii occurs in the upper Amazon from the Rio Caquetá in Colombia, south through the Peruvian Amazon and the extreme western Amazon of Brazil into the Pando region of northern Bolivia (Hernández-Camacho and Barriga-Bonilla 1966; Hernández-Camacho and Cooper 1976; Hershkovitz 1977). Hershkovitz (1977) predicted that it should occur in the Ecuadorian Amazon, but it has not been found there to date. Despite its wide range, Callimico is notoriously patchy in its distribution and is evidently absent over a large part of it. In Colombia, it occurs from the base of the Cordillera Oriental of the Andes in the Department of Putumayo between the Ríos Putumayo and Caquetá east at least to the mouth of the Río Cahuinarí, a right bank affluent of the Caquetá. It is not known to occur in the Colombian trapezius (Hernández-Camacho and Cooper 1976; Defler 2003, 2004). In Peru, it is evidently limited largely to the eastern Amazon. Hershkovitz (1977) mapped numerous localities south of the Río Napo, along the lower and middle Río Ucayali and the Río Tapiche. The westernmost locality given by Hershkovitz (1977, map p.864) is on the Rio Marañon, but it is listed in the gazetteer as “Apaga (Rio), enters Río Putumayo from south at approximately 4º42'S, 77º10'W, P. Soini, April 1970, sight record”. The coordinates would seem to be right, but the description of the locality wrong, and the Rio Marañon is excluded from the distribution map of Aquino and Encarnación (1994a). These authors have Callimico only definitely occurring south of the lower Ucayali (from the mouth of the Rio Blanco), extending to both sides of the Ucayali at about 6ºS and south along the Andean foothills to the Río Pachitea and the Madre de Dios. It occurs in the Manu National Park (Aquino and Encarnación 1994a). From there it extends east into extreme northern Bolivia, north of the Río Tahuamanu (Buchanan-Smith et al. 2000; Christen and Geismann 1994). Christen and Geismann (1994) reported seeing Callimico south of the Río Nareuda, indicating it occurs south as far as the Rio Muyumanu. Buchanan-Smith et al. (2000) found no evidence of its occurrence south of the Tahuamanu-Nareuda. Callimico occurs in a small part of the south-west Brazilian Amazon in the state of Acre, through the Serra do Divisor south of the upper Rio Juruá to the Rio Gregório (state of Amazonas), to the Rio Iaco (above the Rio Acre) on the south (right) bank of the upper Purus, and into the Madeira basin along the Rio Abunã in the state of Rondônia (Hershkovitz 1977; Ferrari et al. 1999; Lopes and Rehg 2003).
Countries occurrence:
Bolivia, Plurinational States of; Brazil (Acre, Amazonas, Rondônia); Colombia (Colombia (mainland)); Peru
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: Very localized and patchy distribution. Always rare and difficult to observe. Groups are generally widely separated, determined by the availability of the right mix/mosaic of habitats and food availability. Key habitat such as stream edge, bamboo forest and secondary growth patches are needed due to their predilection for certain species of fungus.

Recorded population density estimates in Bolivia, include: 0.29 groups/km² (Izawa and Yoneda 1981); 0.25 groups/km² (Pook and Pook 1981); 9.6 individuals/km² (Cameron et al. 1989); and 6.1 individuals/km² (Porter 2007).

Rehg (2003, 2007) recorded 0.8-1.2 groups/km² in an 820-ha forest patch in Acre, Brazil. This is higher than density estimates recorded from Bolivia, and Rehg (2007) believed it might be related to habitat heterogeneity, including disturbance associated with tree falls.

Porter (2007) combined all group counts reported in the literature and calculated an average group size of 6.4 individuals, and a general population density of 5.6 individuals/km² where they occur. At one site in the far north-west of Bolivia, Porter (2007) estimated 37 individuals/km².
Current Population Trend: Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: Occurs in forest mixed with bamboo, and in varillales (large stands of thin, straight trees). Izawa (1979), Buchanan-Smith (1991a), and Ferrari et al. (1999) have indicated that it is a habitat specialist concentrating on bamboo forests and disturbed forests (secondary growth) related to their tendency to spend much of their time in the lowest parts the forest understorey in dense vegetation. They can also be found in more open, mature forest (Christen and Geissmann 1994; Christen 1998, 1999). Porter (2007) quantified the time a group spent in different habitat types during the course of a year: primary forest with dense understorey 76%; bamboo forest 10%; secondary forest 3%. The group used bamboo forest more than the sympatric tamarins (S. fuscicollis and S. labiatus). Its preference for dense vegetation is related to its extraordinary inclusion of fungi in its diet and to its insect foraging behaviour. Bamboo, stream edge, and tree falls are where they are able to find the jelly fungi and bamboo fungi that they appreciate (Pook and Pook 1981; Porter and Christen 2002; Porte, 2007; Porter et al, 2007).

The diet of Callimico includes fruit, arthropods (especially orthopterans and stick insects), fungi, and exudates. Porter (2007; Porter and Christen 2002; see also Hanson et al. 2006) found that fungi were an essential and considerable component of the diet. Two types were eaten: jelly fungi (Auricularia, 3 species) and bamboo fungi (Ascopolyporous, 2 species). In some months (May-July, dry season) fungi accounted for 48-63% of the feeding records. Callimico forages for arthropods in the understorey and beneath the leaf litter on the forest floor. They are understorey specialists spending 84% of their time foraging below 5 m above the ground (saddleback tamarins tend to forage more a little higher, up to 10 m above the ground, and the moustached tamarins forage even higher up, mostly in the middle and lower canopy - above 10 m (Yoneda 1981; Buchanan-Smith 1999; Porter 2007). Callimico tends to eat more vertebrates (frogs and lizards) than the tamarins. For a review see Heltne et al. (1981).

In her long-term study of Callimico, Porter found that one group used an area of 114 ha, covering the entire home ranges of six tamarin groups (Porter 2007; Porter et al. 2007). Rehg (2003, 2007) on the other found her Callimico group using a range of about 59 ha; similar in size to the Saguinus labiatus group which they travelled with for about 67% of the time. Group size 7 (six adults and subadults and an infant). Callimico groups can be as large as 12 (Encarnación and Heymann 1998) and unlike other callitrichids can have more than one breeding female (Masataka 1981a, 1981b). Copulations occur as soon as 10 days after the female gives birth indicating post-partum oestrus. They produce single offspring. Other members of the group help carry the young (communal breeding), with the first transfer from the mother a few days (4-11) after birth.

Callimico travels and forages with saddleback tamarins (Saguinus fuscicollis) and moustached tamarins (Saguinus mystax, Saguinus labiatus, and Saguinus imperator) (Pook and Pook 1979a,b, 1981, 1982a). Lopes and Rehg (2003) recorded Callimico associating with S. imperator in the Serra do Divisor National Park, Brazil. Rehg (2003, 2006) and Porter (2001, 2007) studied the associations between Callimico, Saguinus labiatus, and S. fuscicollis weddelli in south-eastern Acre, Brazil, and north-western Pando, Bolivia, respectively. Porter (2007) reviews in detail the different specializations of Callimico, saddleback tamarins and moustached tamarins that allow for their sympatry.

Adult males 366 g (n=3) (Encarnación and Heymann 1998)
Adult females 355 g (n=5) (Encarnación and Heymann 1998)
These are wild specimens. In captivity, weights are rather higher: 450-600 g.

Female H&B 24.5 cm, TL 35.5 cm (n=1) (Hernández-Camacho and Barriga-Bonilla 1966)
Make H&B 19.0 cm, TL 25.5 cm (n=1) Holotype (Hernández-Camacho and Barriga-Bonilla 1966, fide Thomas)

Females reach sexual maturity at 57 weeks (median, range 48-70 weeks). Median body weight 473 g (n=10, range 420-543 g) (Dettling and Pryce 1999).
Systems: Terrestrial

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Although there are probably no major threats at present, the species is at risk of becoming threatened very quickly depending on proposed development projects, and logging in areas where it is known to occur.

Bamboo often reforests areas that have been cleared for agriculture or pasture. Studies are needed to determine Callimico's degree of tolerance for habitat disturbance in its range (Porter 2007).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species occurs in the following protected areas:

Serra do Divisor National Park (846,408 ha) (Calouro 1999; Lopes and Rehg 2003)

Amacayacu Natural National Park (293,000 ha) Within presumed range (Defler 1994, 2003, 2004)
Cahuinarí Natural National Park (575,500 ha) Within presumed range (Defler 2003, 2004)
La Paya Natural National Park (442,000 ha) (INDERENA 1989; Palanco-Ochoa et al. 1999) Within presumed range (Defler 2003, 2004).

Manu National Park (Terborgh 1983).

It is listed on Appendix I of CITES.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
  Included in international legislation:Yes
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:Yes
2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.2. Small-holder farming
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.3. Agro-industry farming
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.3. Livestock farming & ranching -> 2.3.2. Small-holder grazing, ranching or farming
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.3. Livestock farming & ranching -> 2.3.3. Agro-industry grazing, ranching or farming
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

4. Transportation & service corridors -> 4.1. Roads & railroads
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.5. Motivation Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Research -> 1.1. Taxonomy
1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

Bibliography [top]

Aquino, R. and Encarnación, F. 1994. Primates of Peru / Los Primates del Perú. Primate Report 40: 1-127.

Buchanan-Smith, H. M. 1991. Field observations of Goeldi’s monkey, Callimico goeldii, in northern Bolivia. Folia Primatologica 57: 102-105.

Buchanan-Smith, H. M. 1999. Tamarin polyspecific associations: Forest utilization and stability of mixed species groups. Primates 40: 233-247.

Buchanan-Smith, H. M., Hardie, S. M., Caceres, C. and Prescott, M. J. 2000. Distribution and forest utilization of Saguinus and other primates of the Pando Department, northern Bolivia. International Journal of Primatology 21(3): 353-379.

Calouro, A. M. 1999. Riqueza de mamíferos de grande e médio porte do Parque Nacional da Serra do Divisor (Acrem, Brasil). Revista Brasileira de Biologia 16: 195-213.

Cameron, R., Wiltshire, C., Foley, C., Dougherty, N., Aramayo, X. and Rea, L. 1989. Goeldi’s monkey and other primates in northern Bolivia. Primate Conservation 10: 62-70.

Christen, A. 1998. The most enigmatic monkey in the Bolivian rain forest – Callimico goeldii. Neotropical Primates 6(2): 35-37.

Christen, A. 1999. Survey of Goeldi's monkeys (Callimico goeldii) in northern Bolivia. Folia Primatologica 70: 107-111.

Christen, A. and Geissmann, T. 1994. A primate survey in northern Bolivia, with special reference to Goeldi’s monkey, Callimico goeldii. International Journal of Primatology 15(2): 239-274.

Defler, T.R. 1994. La conservación de primates en Colombia. Trianea 5: 255-287.

Defler, T. R. 2003. Primates de Colombia. Conservation International, Bogota.

Defler, T. R. 2004. Primates of Colombia. Conservation International, Washington, DC, Usa.

Dettling, A. and Pryce, C.R. 1999. Hormonal monitoring of age at sexual maturation in female Goeldi’s monkeys (Callimico goeldii) in their family groups. American Journal of Primatology 48: 77-83.

Encarnación, F. and Heymann, E. W. 1998. Body mass of wild Callimico goeldii. Folia Primatologica 69: 368-371.

Ferrari, S. F., Iwanaga, S., Ramos, E. M., Messias, M. R., Ramos, P. C. S. and Cruz Neto, E. H. da. 1999. Expansion of the known distribution of Goeldi’s monkey (Callimico goeldii) in south-western Brazilian Amazonia. Folia Primatologica 70: 112-116.

Hanson, A. M., Hall, M. B., Porter, L. M. and Lintzenich, B. 2006. Composition and nutritional characteristics of fungi consumed by Callimico goeldii in Pando, Bolivia. International Journal of Preimatology 27(1): 323-346.

Heltne, P. G., Wojcik, J. F. and Pook, A. G. 1981. Goeldi's monkey genus Callimico. In: A. F. Coimbra-Filho and R. A. Mittermeier (eds), Ecology and Behavior of Neotropical Primates, pp. 169-209. Academia Brasileira de Ciências, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Hernández-Camacho, J. and Barriga-Bonilla, E. 1966. Hallazgo del genero Callimico (Mammalia, Primates) en Colombia. Caldasia 9(44): 365-377.

Hernández-Camacho, J. and Cooper, R. W. 1976. The nonhuman primates of Colombia. In: R. W. Thorington, Jr. and P. G. Heltne (eds), Neotropical Primates: Field Studies and Conservation, pp. 35-69. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC, USA.

Hershkovitz, P. 1977. Living New World monkeys (Platyrrhini), with an introduction to Primates. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, USA.

Izawa, K. 1979. Studies on peculiar distribution pattern of Callimico.

Izawa, K. and Yoneda. M. 1981. Habitat utilization of nonhuman primates in a forest of the western Pando, Bolivia. Kyoto University Overseas Research Reports of New World Monkeys 1981: 13-22.

Lopes. M. A. and Rehg, J. A. 2003. Observations of Callimico goeldii with Saguinus imperator in the Serra do Divisor National Park, Acre, Brazil. Neotropical Primates 11(3): 181-183.

Masataka, N. 1981. A field study of the social behavior of Goeldi’s monkeys (Callimico goeldii) in north Bolivia. I. Group composition, breeding cycle, and infant development. Reports of New World Monkeys: 23-32.

Masataka, N. 1981. A field study of the social behavior of Goeldi’s monkeys (Callimico goeldii) in north Bolivia. II. Grouping pattern and intragroup relationship. Reports of New World Monkeys: 33-41.

Masataka, N. 1982. A field study on the vocalizations of Goeldi's monkeys. Primates 23(2): 206-219.

Palanco-Ochoa, R., Jaimes V. and Piragua, W. 1999. Los mamíferos del Parque Nacional Natural La Paya, Amazonia Colombiana. Revista de la Academia Colombia Ciencias 23: 671–682.

Pook, A. G. and Pook, G. 1979. A field study on the status and socioecology of the Goeldi's monkey (Callimico goeldii) and other primates in northern Bolivia. New York Zoological Society, New York, USA.

Pook, A. G. and Pook, G. 1979. The conservation status of the Goeldi's monkey Callimico goeldii in Bolivia. Dodo, Journal of the Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust 16: 40-45.

Pook, A. G. and Pook, G. 1981. A field study of the socio-ecology of the Goeldi's monkey (Callimico goeldii) in northern Bolivia. Folia Primatologica 35: 288-312.

Pook, A. G. and Pook, G. 1982. Polyspecific association between Saguinus fuscicollis, Saguinus labiatus, Callimico goeldii and other primates in north-western Bolivia. Folia Primatologica 38: 196-216.

Porter, L. M. 2001. Benefits of polyspecific associations for the Goeldi monkey (Callimico goeldii). American Journal of Primatology 54(3): 143-158.

Porter, L. M. 2007. The Behavioral Ecology of Callimicos and Tamarins in Northwestern Bolivia. Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA.

Porter, L. M. and Christen, A. 2002. Fungus and Callimico goeldii: new insights into Callimico goeldii behavior and ecology. Evolutionary Anthropology 11(1): 87-90.

Porter, L. M., Storr, S. M. and Garber, P. A. 2007. Habitat use and ranging behavior of Callimico goeldii. International Journal of Primatology 28: 1035-1058.

Rehg, J. A. 2003. Polyspecific associations of Callimico goeldii, Saguinus labiatus, and Saguinus fuscicollis in Acre, Brazil. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champain.

Rehg, J. A. 2006. Seasonal variation in polyspecific associations among Callimico goeldii, Saguinus labiatus, and S. fuscicollis in Acre, Brazil. International Journal of Primatology 27(5): 1399-1428.

Rehg, J. A. 2007. Population density of Callimico goeldii (Goeldi’s monkey) in relationship to home range and habitat in a forest fragement in Acre, Brazil. In: J. C. Bicca-Marques (ed.), A Primatologia no Brasil – 10, pp. 269-298. Porto Alegre, RS.

Terborgh, J. 1983. Five New World Primates: A Study in Comparative Ecology. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, USA.

Vàsàrhelyi, K. 2002. The nature of relationships among founders in the captive population of Goeldís monkey (Callimico goeldii). Evolutionary Anthropology 1: 155-158.

Yoneda, M. 1981. Ecological studies of Saguinus fuscicollis and Saguinus labiatus with reference to habitat segregation and height preference. Kyoto University Overseas Research Report of New World Monkeys: 43-50.

Citation: Cornejo, F. 2008. Callimico goeldii. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T3564A9947398. . Downloaded on 06 October 2015.
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