Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Magnoliopsida Theales Guttiferae

Scientific Name: Garcinia kola
Species Authority: Heckel

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable A2cd ver 3.1
Year Published: 2004
Date Assessed: 2004-04-30
Needs updating
Assessor(s): Cheek, M.
Reviewer(s): Hilton-Taylor, C. & Pollock, C.M. (Red List Programme Office)
The previous assessment by W. Hawthorne (Oldfield et al 1998) was presumably made on the basis that it was probably the most important source of chewsticks and that overexploitation had caused population declines. Seedlings were also reported to be uncommon and that the tree was slow-growing. The assessment appears to have been based only on its occurrence in Ghana and the Democratic Republic of Congo, since these were the only two countries cited under the distribution at that time. The range data has since been updated from the account in the Flora of West Tropical Africa, which shows that it has a much more extensive range. In the S.W. Province of Cameroon, the main use for the species is not as a chew-stick (for which the most important species is Garcinia mannii), but for the comestible-medicinal seeds (Bitter cola), probably harvested sustainably from the fallen fruits. The seeds are marketed extensively by vendors all over at least the southern part of Cameroon. The species is at least occasionally cultivated (M. Cheek pers. obs.). On the basis of these observations in Cameroon, and given the large range of the species, G. kola would not otherwise be assessed as threatened. However, it is perfectly possible that general habitat loss and felling for dental hygiene in the western part of its range is sufficient to justify the maintenance of this rating (it has been updated to the new Criteria).
Previously published Red List assessments:
1998 Vulnerable (VU)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Benin, Cameroon, Gabon, Congo (Kinshasa).
Countries occurrence:
Benin; Cameroon; Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Côte d'Ivoire; Gabon; Ghana; Liberia; Sierra Leone
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Current Population Trend: Decreasing
Additional data:

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: A widespread tree of evergreen forest.
Systems: Terrestrial

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): It is probably the most important source of chewsticks. Overexploitation has caused population declines. Seedlings are uncommon and slow-growing.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
suitability: Suitable  

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.1. Intentional use: (subsistence/small scale)
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.2. Species disturbance

Bibliography [top]

Hawthorne, W. 1995. Categories of conservation priority and Ghanaian tree species (unpublished).

Hawthorne, W.D. 1995. Ecological Profiles of Ghanaian Forest Trees. Oxford Forestry Institute.

IUCN. 2004. 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 23 November 2004.

Oldfield, S., Lusty, C. and MacKinven, A. (compilers). 1998. The World List of Threatened Trees. World Conservation Press, Cambridge, UK.

WWF and IUCN. 1994. Centres of plant diversity. A guide and strategy for their conservation. IUCN Publications Unit, Cambridge, UK.

Citation: Cheek, M. 2004. Garcinia kola. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2004: e.T34715A9884648. . Downloaded on 10 October 2015.
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