Acacia ankokib 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Magnoliopsida Fabales Leguminosae

Scientific Name: Acacia ankokib
Species Authority: Chiov.
Taxonomic Notes: A. manubensis produces an edible gum like A. ankokib, and their Somali name is the same (ankokib and xankokib). The two species are ecologically distinct, A. manubensis occurring at higher altitudes (Thulin 1993). The species is treated by some authors under the genus Racosperma.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable B1ab(iii) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2012
Date Assessed: 2010-02-02
Assessor(s): Contu, S.
Reviewer(s): Hilton-Taylor, C.
Acacia ankokib is endemic to Somalia and its distribution range is restricted to the north east part of the country (Sanaag, Bari and part of Nugaal provinces). The estimated extent of occurrence (EOO=14,000 km²) meets the threshold for a threatened category. Considering the lack of precise data on population number and status, that there are no precise figures about the level of utilization of the wild specimens for the harvesting of natural gum, and the effect that this might have on the health of the populations, and to the fact that the species is currently not known to occur in the limited Somali protected areas network, it is believed that the species is of conservation concern. Further botanical surveys are recommended to better understand the extension of the range of A. ankokib and the number and health of the subpopulations. It is also suggested to adopt in situ and ex situ conservation measures to make sure that the species does not fall into a higher threatened category in the near future.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Acacia ankokib is endemic to Somalia, where it is known to occur in the north east area (probably in Sanaag, Bari and part of Nugaal provinces).
Countries occurrence:
Additional data:
Number of Locations:5-9
Lower elevation limit (metres):10
Upper elevation limit (metres):750
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:The species is very localized in its distribution range and at present there is not precise data about population numbers and trends.
Current Population Trend:Unknown
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:Yes

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:A. ankokib is a shrub or tree to 6 m high which is only known from semi-desert bushland, usually in rocky gulleys and in gravelly valley bottoms on limestone. It is associated with Mimusops angel, Bridelia somalensis, Euphorbia cameronii, Sterculia and Commiphora spp. (Hassan 1990). The species occurs in the Somali montane xeric woodlands and Somali Acacia-Commiphora bushlands and thickets ecoregions (Olson et al. 2001).

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: This species produces an edible gum of local importance. Acacia ankokib naturally produces resin, the gum is harvested from wild trees and to accelerate the production the bark is taken off from the truck and the bigger branches. In June the bark is incized and in July the gum is gathered. Branca (1960) estimated the annual yield reaches the 300 quintal per annum.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The ecoregions in which the species occurs have been severely affected by political instability and war over the past few decades. Habitats have become degraded in many places through grazing by livestock, fuel wood and charcoal extraction, particularly close to villages and towns (Magin and Mockrin 2001). The effects of these activities has also left the soil bare and exposed to erosion.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: There are no known conservation measures specifically for A. ankokib, and the species is not known to occurs in the protected areas network at present. Samples of seed of A. ankokib should be collected and stored as an ex situ conservation measure. The species has already been listed in The World List of Threatened Trees (1998) in which it was rated as a Lower Risk/Near Threatened, and in the 1997 IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants (1998) as Rare.

Classifications [top]

3. Shrubland -> 3.5. Shrubland - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
3. Species management -> 3.4. Ex-situ conservation -> 3.4.2. Genome resource bank

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.3. Livestock farming & ranching -> 2.3.4. Scale Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.5. Motivation Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
1. Research -> 1.6. Actions
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends
0. Root -> 4. Other

♦  Food - human
 Local : ✓ 

Bibliography [top]

Branca, A. 1960. Le piante spontanee della Somalia e la loro utilizzazione economica. Rivista di Agricultura Subtropicale e Tropicale 45: 608-651.

Cufontis, G. 1970. Enumeratio plantarum Aethiopiae: Spermatophyta. Enumeratio Plantarum Aethiopiae: Spermatophyta, pp. 1387-1482. Jardin botanique national de Belgique, Domaine de Bouchout, Meise.

Hassan, A.S. 1990. A Conspectus of Somali Acacias. Natural Resources Institute, Chatham.

Hjertson, M. 2003. Revision of the disjunct genus Campylanthus (Scrophulariaceae). Edinburgh Journal of Botany 60(2): 131-174.

IUCN. 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2012.2). Available at: (Accessed: 17 October 2012).

Magin, C. and Mockrin, M. 2001. Somali Acacia-Commiphora bushlands and thickets (AT0715). WWF Ecoregion. Available at: (Accessed: January 2008).

Oldfield, S., Lusty, C. and MacKinven, A. (eds.). 1998. World List of Threatened Trees. World Conservation Press, Cambridge, UK.

Olson, D.M., Dinerstein, E., Wikramanayake E.D., Burgess, N.D., Powell, G.V.N., Underwood, E.C., D'Amico J.A., Itoua, I., Strand, H.E., Morrison, J.C., Loucks, C.J., Allnutt, T.F., Ricketts, T.H., Kura, Y., Lamoreux, J.F., Wettengel, W.W., Hedao, P. and Kassem, K.R. 2001. Terrestrial ecoregions of the world: a new map of life on earth. Bioscience 51: 933-938.

Ross, J.H. 1979. A conspectus of African Acacia species. Memoirs of the Botanical Survey of Survey of South Africa 44: 155.

Thulin, M. (ed.). 1993. Flora of Somalia. Volume 1- Pteridophyta; Gymnospermae; Angiospermae (Annonaceae-Fabaceae). Kew Publishing, Kew.

Walter, K.S. and Gillett, H.J. (eds). 1998. 1997 IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants. Compiled by the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. IUCN - The World Conservation Union, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Citation: Contu, S. 2012. Acacia ankokib. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T34501A19996908. . Downloaded on 26 February 2017.
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