Acsmithia vitiense 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Magnoliopsida Oxalidales Cunoniaceae

Scientific Name: Acsmithia vitiense (A.Gray) Hoogland
Acsmithia vitiense (A.Gray) Hoogland [orth. error]
Spiraeanthemum vitiense A.Gray

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered B2ab(iii); D ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2016-07-27
Assessor(s): Tutevu, I.
Reviewer(s): Oldfield, S. & Keppel, G.
Contributor(s): Cavu, S., Daveta, M., Masau, M., Young, E., Rokocaucau, M., Thomas, N. & Tikoca, S.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Rivers, M.C.
This species is endemic to Fiji and found only in Viti Levu, Vanua Levu and Ovalau. The species is considered Endangered because of its population size (200 mature individuals) and restricted range. The area of occupancy (AOO) is below 500 km2 and it only exists in four locations. There are some threats from agricultural expansion, mining and fire which lead to a decline in habitat quality and extent. There are no conservation actions in place.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:The species represents the easternmost member of the genus with definite occurrences on three islands in Fiij: Viti Levu, Ovalau and Vanua Levu. The extent of occurrence is 13,913 km2 and the area of occupancy is 40 km2. The species is found in four threat-defined locations.
Countries occurrence:
Additional data:
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:40
Number of Locations:4
Lower elevation limit (metres):450
Upper elevation limit (metres):1200
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:There are few trees in each location and the total population consists of approximately 200 individuals (Fiji Red List Workshop, July 2016).
Current Population Trend:Unknown
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:200

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:A small gnarled tree growing in thickets on ridges and crests in upland areas, and sometimes in open places. It grows up to 4 m and the filament and styles are white. Occurs at altitudes of 450-1,200 m.
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: Not traded and not recorded as used for medicinal purposes.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The main threat is fire as it grows on the dry side of the two major islands, but another threat is agricultural expansion. Mining is also taking place in Bua and this will also threaten the species.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: There are no records of any conservation action (in situ or ex situ). The conservation recommendations include: ex situ collections (including seed collections), the development of a recovery plan (including enhancement planting as population is small), further awareness and engagement of land owners and regulatory authorities. There is also a need for some area protection and management. To aid conservation action further research into population size, distribution and trend, as well as the habitat, ecology and ecosystem services are needed. In addition, more research into propagation methods are needed.

Classifications [top]

3. Shrubland -> 3.6. Shrubland - Subtropical/Tropical Moist
3. Shrubland -> 3.7. Shrubland - Subtropical/Tropical High Altitude
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
3. Species management -> 3.2. Species recovery
3. Species management -> 3.4. Ex-situ conservation -> 3.4.2. Genome resource bank
4. Education & awareness -> 4.3. Awareness & communications

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Occur in at least one PA:No
In-Place Species Management
  Subject to ex-situ conservation:No
In-Place Education
2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.4. Scale Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

3. Energy production & mining -> 3.2. Mining & quarrying
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

7. Natural system modifications -> 7.1. Fire & fire suppression -> 7.1.1. Increase in fire frequency/intensity
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
2. Conservation Planning -> 2.1. Species Action/Recovery Plan

Bibliography [top]

IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-3. Available at: (Accessed: 07 December 2016).

Lear, M. and Woods, B. 1992. Plant conservation in Fiji. WWF 3334. Small grants for plant conservation on islands (6) Fiji.

Smith, A.C. 1979. Flora Vitiensis Nova: A New Flora of Fiji. Pacific Tropical Botanic Garden, Hawaii.

Citation: Tutevu, I. 2016. Acsmithia vitiense. In: . The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T34365A99515795. . Downloaded on 24 June 2018.
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