|Scientific Name:||Cacajao melanocephalus_old|
|Species Authority:||(Humboldt, 1812)|
Cacajao melanocephalus subspecies ouakary (Spix, 1823)
Simia melanocephalus Humboldt, 1812
|Taxonomic Notes:||The taxonomy of Cacajao follows Hernández-Camacho and Cooper (1976), Hershkovitz (1987), Eisenberg (1989), Boubli (1994), Figueiredo (2006) and Boubli et al. (2008). The species name Cacajao ouakary has been suggested as more appropriate than Cacajao melanocephalus (A. Barnett pers. comm.) but Boubli et al. 2008 disagree.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Barnett, A.A., Boubli, J.-P., Veiga, L.M. & Palacios, E.|
|Reviewer(s):||Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority)|
Listed as Least Concern as they are reasonably widespread, much of their range occurs in a relatively undisturbed area of the Brazilian Amazon, and there are no current major threats resulting in a significant range-wide decline of the species.
|Range Description:||The range of C. melanocephalus is delimited to the south by the Solimões and Japurá rivers in Brazil, to the west by the Apaporis and La Macarena mountains in Colombia, to the north by the Guaviari River in Colombia and the Negro River in Brazil. Boubli et al. (2008) suggest a range extension to include the region between the Canal Cassiquiari (north) and the Orinoco River in Venezuela. The extension could mean that the species would be sympatric with Chiropotes, as previously reported elsewhere within the range of the genus by Boubli (2002).|
Native:Brazil; Colombia; Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||There are no precise data concerning total population numbers. Golden-backed black Uakaris have been found to be abundant during periods of high fruit availability in igapó (the seasonally flooded forest that occurs along the margins of blackwater rivers in north-west Amazonia) (Barnett 2005; Barnett et al. 2005). Defler (2001) estimated a crude density of 4.15 animals/km² at the landscape level and an ecological density (in terms of food abundance) of 12 animals/km².|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
Golden-backed Black Uakaris are habitat specialists, spending the majority of the year in igapó forests, although animals may migrate seasonally to terra firme forest when fruit resource availability is at its lowest (Barnett and da Cunha 1991; Barnett et al. 2005). They appear to avoid degraded igapó (Hernandez-Camacho and Cooper 1977; Barnett et al. 2002; A. Barnett pers. comm.), and have not been reported from either secondary forest or low shrubby white sand habitats.
In igapó forests, they spend by far the greatest amount of their time in the canopy, though they may forage at all levels from the water level upwards. They have been observed descending to the ground to consume germinating seeds in the period when the igapo is unflooded (Barnett 2008). Like other uakaris, golden-backeds are specialized seed predators and the majority of their diet is made up of immature seeds (Barnett et al. 2007a; Barnett 2008). In months when immature seed availability is low, the diet may be supplemented by fruit pulp, young leaves, pith and arthropods. The majority of food species are from tall canopy trees. In addition, emergents are often used as sleeping trees (Barnett et al. 2008). Hard fruits are bitten along points of weakness, such as sutures, to open them economically (Barnett et al. 2007b).
Groups range in size from 5-40 individuals, but groups with >100 individuals have been seen – probably as a result of a congregation of several groups. As groups with 1-10 individuals have been found more frequently at times when fruits are scarce, it is possible that group size is positively correlated with fruit availability (Defler 2001; Barnett et al. 2007a, 2008). Though the species may be sympatric with bearded sakis in some parts of its range, competition may be limited by the super-abundance of some of their diet items (see Barnett et al. 2005).
|Major Threat(s):||In Colombia, there is some habitat loss due to the planting of illegal crops and human settlement, but only in the northern portion of the range. In Brazil, there is some occasional hunting for food or bait (A. Barnett pers. comm.). The Golden-backed Black Uakari may become threatened if climatic changes provoked by global warming reduce the present extent of its flooded forest habitats (Queiroz and Valsecchi 2007). A number of the species eaten by golden-backeds are also used by the commercial timber industry (Barnett et al. 2008).|
|Conservation Actions:||Presently, several large parks and reserves protect parts of the range of this species. In Colombia, they are protected by two large natural reserves: Nukak (855,000 ha) and Puinawai (1,280,000 ha). In Brazil, the species is protected in several areas including the 2,270,000-ha Jaú National Park and the Amanã Extractive Reserve. However, the species continues to be hunted for meat in areas, including some that are officially protected. It is listed on CITES Appendix I.|
Ayres, J. M. 1989. Comparative feeding ecology of the uacari and bearded saki, Cacajao and Chiropotes. Journal of Human Evolution 18: 697-716.
Barnett, A. A. 2005. Cacajao melanocephalus. Mammalian Species 776: 1-6.
Barnett, A. A. 2008. Report on fieldwork conducted in Jaú National Park, Amazonian Brazil, between January and December 2007 on the diet, habitat preferences and conservation ecology of the golden-backed uacarí, Cacajao ouakary (Pitheciidae, Primates). Igapo Stduy Project Manaus, 11 January 2008. Igapo Study Project Report Series # 7.
Barnett, A. A. and Brandon-Jones, D. 1997. The ecology, biogeography and conservation of the uakaris, Cacajao (Pitheciinae).
Barnett, A. A., Bezerra, B. and Andrade, E. 2007. Report of two visits to Jaú National Park, studying golden-backed uacaris (Cacajao melanocephalus ouakary) and their habitat. 13 Oct. – 11 Nov. and 5 –15 Dec., 2006. Igapo Study Project Manaus, 14 January 2007. Igapo Study Project Report Series # 6.
Barnett, A. A, Bezerra, B. M. and Spironello. 2007. Diet flexibility and diet item treatment in the golden-backed uacari, Cacajao melanocephalus ouakary.. Las Tuxlas, Mexico.
Barnett, A. A., Borges, S., de Castilho, C. V., Neri, F. and Shapley, R. L. 2002. Primates of Jaú National Park, Amazonas, Brazil. Neotropical Primates 10: 65-70.
Barnett, A. A., Castilho, C. V., Shapley, R. L. and Anicácio, A. 2005. Diet, Habitat Selection and Natural History of Cacajao melanocephalus ouakary in Jaú National Park, Brazil. International Journal of Primatology 26: 949-969.
Barnett, A. and da Cunha, A. C. 1991. The golden-backed uacari on the upper Rio Negro, Brazil. Oryx 25(2): 80-88.
Barnett, A. and de Castilho, C. V. 2000. Report on a Short Study of the Dry Season Feeding Ecology and Habitat Preferences of the Golden-backed Uacari Or Bicó, Cacajao melanocephalus ouakary (Cebidae: Pithecinae), on the Lower Rio Jaú. Akodon Ecological Consulting, Amazonas, Brazil.
Bodini, R. 1989. Distribución geográfica y conservación de primates no humanos em Colombia. In: C. J. Saavedra, R. A. Mittermeier and I. B. Santos (eds), La Primatología en Latinoamérica, pp. 101-113. World Wildlife Fund - US, Washington, DC, USA.
Bodini, R. and Pérez-Hernández, R. 1987. Distribution of the species and subspecies of cebids in Venezuela. Fieldiana: Zoology 39: 231–244.
Boubli, J. P. 1993. Southern expansion of the geographical distribution of Cacajao melanocephalus melanocephalus. International Journal of Primatology 14(6): 933-937.
Boubli, J. P. 1994. The black uakari monkey in the Pico da Neblina National Park. Neotropical Primates 2(3): 11-12.
Boubli, J. P. 1997. A Study of the Black Uakari, Cacajao melanocephalus, in the Pico da Neblina National Park, Brazil. Neotropical Primates 5: 113-115.
Boubli, J. P. 1997. Ecology of the Black Uakari monkey, Cacajao melanocephalus melanocephalus, in Pico de Neblina National Park, Brazil. Ph.D. Thesis, University of California.
Boubli, J. P. 1999. Feeding Ecology of Black-headed Uacaris (Cacajao melanocephalus melanocephalus) in Pico da Neblina National Park, Brazil. International Journal of Primatology 20(5): 719-749.
Boubli, J. P. 2002. Western extension of the range of bearded sakis: a possible new taxon of Chiropotes sympatric with Cacajao in the Pico da Neblina National Park, Brazil. Neotropical Primates 10(1): 1-4.
Boubli, J. P., Silva, M. N. F., Amado, M. V., Herbk, T., Pontual, F. B. and Farias, I. 2008. A taxonomic reassessment of black uakari monkey, Cacajao melanocephalus, Humboldt (1811), with the description of two new species. International Journal of Primatology 29: 723-741.
Defler, T. R. 1991. Preliminary observations of Cacajao melanocephalus (Humboldt, 1812) (Primates, Cebidae). Trianea 4: 557-558.
Defler, T. R. 1999. Estación Biológica Caparú - Colombian Amazon. Neotropical Primates 7(1): 24-26.
Defler, T. R. 1999. Fission fusion in the black-headed uacari (Cacajao melanocephalus) in eastern Colombia. Neotropical Primates 7(1): 5-8.
Defler, T. R. 2001. Cacajao melanocephalus ouakary densities on the lower Apaporis River, Colombian Amazon. Primate Report.
Defler, T. R. 2004. Primates of Colombia. Conservation International, Washington, DC, Usa.
Eisenberg, J.F. 1989. Mammals of the Neotropics. The Northern Neotropics. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, USA and London, UK.
Eisenberg, J.F. and Redford, K.H. 1999. Mammals of the Neotropics: The Central Neotropics. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, USA.
Figueiredo, W. M. B. 2006. Estimativas de Tempos de Divergência em Platirrinos e Filogenia Molecular e Filogeografia dos Uacaris, Parauacus e Cuxiú. Tese Doutorado em Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal do Pará.
Groves, C. P. 2001. Primate taxonomy. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA.
Handley Jr., C. O. 1976. Mammals of the Smithsonian Venezuelan Project. Brigham Young University Science Bulletin, Biological Series 20: 1-91.
Hernández-Camacho, J. and Cooper, R. W. 1976. The nonhuman primates of Colombia. In: R. W. Thorington, Jr. and P. G. Heltne (eds), Neotropical Primates: Field Studies and Conservation, pp. 35-69. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC, USA.
Hershkovitz, P. 1987. Uacaries, New World monkeys of the genus Cacajao (Cebidae, Platyrrhini): a preliminary taxonomic review with the description of a new subspecies. American Journal of primatology 12: 1–53.
Humboldt, A. 1811. Recueil d’observations de zoologie et d’anatomie compare, faites dans l’ocean atlantique dans l’interior du nouveau continent et dans la mer du sud pendant les années 1799, 1800, 1801, 1802 et 1803. Levrault Schoell, Paris, France.
Humboldt, A. and Bompland, A. 1907. Personal narrative of travels to the equinoctial regions of America during the years, 1799-1804 / by Alexander von Humboldt and Aimé Bonpland. London, UK.
Koiffmann, C. P. and Saldanha, P. H. 1981. The karyotype of Cacajao melanocephalus (Platyrrhini, Primates). Folia Primatologica 36: 150-155.
Lehman, S. M. and Robertson, K. L. 1994. A preliminary survey of Cacajao melanocephalus melanocephalus. International Journal of Primatology 15(6): 927-934.
Linares, O.J. 1998. Mamíferos de Venezuela. Sociedad Conservacionista Audubon de Venezuela, Caracas, Venezuela.
Norconk, M. A., Sussman, R. W. and Phillips-Conroy, J. 1996. Primates of Guayana Shield forests: Venezuela and the Guianas. In: M. A. Norconk, A. L. Rosenberger and P. A. Garber (eds), Adaptive Radiations of Neotropical Primates, pp. 69-83. Plenum Press, New York, USA.
Queiroz, H. L. and Valsecchi, J. 2007. Avaliação preliminar dos impactos das mudanças climáticas e da redução de números sobre populações de Cacajao melanocephalus e Cacajao calvus calvus na Amazônia ocidental brasileira. Congress of the Brazilian Primatology Society, Belo Horizonte, Brazil.
Rudran, R. and Eisenberg, J. F. 1982. Conservation and status of wild primates in Venezuela. International Zoo Yearbook 22: 52-59.
Spix, J. B. 1823. Simiarum et vespertilliarum brasiliensis species novae; ou histoire naturelle des espéces nouvelles des singes et de chauve-souris observée et recueilies pendant le voyage dans l’interieur du Bresil. Monaco.
|Citation:||Barnett, A.A., Boubli, J.-P., Veiga, L.M. & Palacios, E. 2008. Cacajao melanocephalus_old. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 01 September 2015.|
|Feedback:||If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please provide us with feedback so that we can correct or extend the information provided|