Cedrus libani var. brevifolia 

Scope: Global
Language: English

Translate page into:

Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Pinopsida Pinales Pinaceae

Scientific Name: Cedrus libani A.Rich. var. brevifolia Hook.f.
Parent Species:
Cedrus brevifolia (Hook.f.) A.Henry
Taxonomic Source(s): Farjon, A. 2010. A Handbook of the World's Conifers. Koninklijke Brill, Leiden.
Taxonomic Notes: Sometimes described as a subspecies or variety of Cedrus libani.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable D2 ver 3.1
Year Published: 2011
Date Assessed: 2010-01-21
Assessor(s): Christou, A & Gardner, M.
Reviewer(s): Thomas, P. & Farjon, A.

The area of occupancy (AOO) is considerably less than 20 km2 and it is known from one location. The population appears to be increasing although some trees are showing signs of dieback that have been correlated with decreasing rainfall (Christou et al. 2001). Its very restricted distribution makes it vulnerable to stochastic events despite the numerous protection measures that have been put in place. Although this species meets some of the criteria for Critically Endangered there is insufficient evidence of significant ongoing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO), AOO, the number of mature individuals or extreme fluctuations. A continuing decrease in rainfall and an increase in the number of trees showing symptoms of dieback could mean that it could be upgraded to Critically Endangered in the near future. It is currently listed as Vulnerable.

Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Restricted to the Tripylos area in Paphos State Forest in the Troodos Mountains in western Cyprus.
Countries occurrence:
Additional data:
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:8Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):No
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):NoEstimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:100
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):NoExtreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):No
Number of Locations:1Continuing decline in number of locations:No
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:NoLower elevation limit (metres):800
Upper elevation limit (metres):1400
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]


Known from five natural stands (Tripylos, Mauroi Kremoi,Sellae tis Ellias, Throni and Exo Milos). Only the biggest stand at Tripylos has been inventoried with the following data:

·         Actual AOO = 1.99 km².

·         16,000 mature individuals with diameter at breast height (DBH) 12 cm

·         135,000 individuals with DBH

Limited genetic research suggests that there is significant genetic differentiation among the neighbouring stands (Eliades 2008).

Current Population Trend:Stable
Additional data:
Continuing decline of mature individuals:No
Extreme fluctuations:NoPopulation severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:

Sometimes in pure forests, especially on the mountain tops but often associated with Pinus brutia and Quercus alnifolia and mixed forest with Platanus orientalis. The substrate is of igneous formations. Good seed crops are typically produced once every five to seven years. There is a 50-60 % seed viability.

Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:No

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: Used in reforestation programmes in the Troodos Mountains. Internationally it is sometimes used as an ornamental tree and in research programmes.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s):

The main threats are fire and possibly climate changes. Because of the narrow distribution of this species, one fire has the potential of destroying most, if not the entire population. More recently, research has shown a direct correlation between decreasing annual rainfall and canopy die-back. Debilitated trees have also become prone to insect attack (Christou et al. 2001).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: All stands have recently been declared as Natura 2000 Sites while some were designated as National Nature Reserves in 1984 and 2000. All human activities and grazing are excluded from the native stands. There is an effective fire protection system in place and a permanent monitoring plan. Gene banks have also been established in the form of ex situ conservation plantations.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.4. Forest - Temperate
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
  Action Recovery plan:Yes
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
  Percentage of population protected by PAs (0-100):100
  Area based regional management plan:Yes
In-Place Species Management
  Subject to ex-situ conservation:Yes
In-Place Education
  Subject to recent education and awareness programmes:Yes
11. Climate change & severe weather -> 11.2. Droughts
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Whole (>90%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score:Medium Impact: 7 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

6. Human intrusions & disturbance -> 6.1. Recreational activities
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Whole (>90%) ♦ severity:Rapid Declines ⇒ Impact score:High Impact: 8 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends
3. Monitoring -> 3.4. Habitat trends

♦  Construction or structural materials
 Local : ✓   National : ✓ 

♦  Pets/display animals, horticulture
 International : ✓ 

♦  Establishing ex-situ production *

Bibliography [top]

Christou, K.A., Hatzikyriakou, X. and Nikolaou, C. 2001. Die-back of Cyprus cedar (Cedrus brevifolia) at Pafos forest. Conference: Forest Research: A challenge for an integrated European approach Greece, August 27 - 1 September 1.

Eliades, N.-G.H. 2008. Fingerprinting of genetic diversity and patterns of spatial genetic variation in the endemic tree Cedrus brevifolia (Hook.f.) Henry from Cyprus: implications for its conservation. Optimus Mostafa Verlag.

Farjon, A. 2001. World Checklist and Bibliography of Conifers. 2nd edition. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

IUCN. 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2011.2). Available at: (Accessed: 10 November 2011).

Tsintides, T., Christodoulou, C.S., Delipetrou, P. and Georghiou, K. 2007. The Red Data Book of the Flora of Cyprus. Cyprus Forestry Association, Lefkosia.

Citation: Christou, A & Gardner, M. 2011. Cedrus libani var. brevifolia. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2011: e.T34148A9844497. . Downloaded on 23 June 2018.
Disclaimer: To make use of this information, please check the <Terms of Use>.
Feedback: If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please provide us with feedback so that we can correct or extend the information provided