|Scientific Name:||Hesperomannia arbuscula|
|Taxonomic Notes:||Recent taxonomic research has split H. arbuscula into two separate species: H. arbuscula is endemic to the island of Maui, and H. oahuensis is endemic to Oahu island.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Critically Endangered A2ac; B1ab(iii,v); C1+2a(i); D ver 3.1|
|Assessor/s:||Bruegmann, M.M. & Caraway, V.|
|Reviewer/s:||Maunder, M. (Plant Conservation Committee) & Pollock, C.M. (Red List Programme Office)|
Hesperomannia arbuscula is endemic to the Hawaiian Islands of Maui and Oahu. There has been an observed population decline of 25–50% over the last three years. The total number of known individuals is less than 25. Main threats to the species are habitat degradation by pigs, competition with alien plant species (prickly Florida blackberry, Christmas berry, Koster's curse, and strawberry guava), predation from rats, and from trampling or collecting by humans.
|Range Description:||H. arbuscula is endemic to the island of Maui.|
Native:United States (Hawaiian Is.)
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||It is found in a very remote area and has around 25 individuals (V.L. Caraway, pers. comm.).|
|Habitat and Ecology:||A small shrubby tree or shrub, known from scattered subpopulations in lowland rainforest.|
|Major Threat(s):||Feral pigs and introduced plants pose the most serious threats.|
|Conservation Actions:||This species is being propagated at the Lyon Arboretum and the National Tropical Botanical Garden (G. Koob and S. Smith, pers. comm., 1997). The species is listed under the US Endangered Species Act.|
IUCN. 2003. 2003 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded on 18 November 2003.
Oldfield, S., Lusty, C. and MacKinven, A. (compilers). 1998. The World List of Threatened Trees. World Conservation Press, Cambridge, UK.
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 2003. Rare plant database. Unpublished.
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Pacific Region. 1997. Draft recovery plan for Oahu plants. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Portland, Oregon.
Wagner, W., Herbst, D. and Sohmer, S. 1990. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawaii. University of Hawaii Press, Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu.
Wagner, W., Herbst, D. and Sohmer S. 1999. Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawaii. Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum Special Publication 91: 1-1918.
|Citation:||Bruegmann, M.M. & Caraway, V. 2003. Hesperomannia arbuscula. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 10 December 2013.|
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