Pinus brutia var. pityusa 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Pinopsida Pinales Pinaceae

Scientific Name: Pinus brutia Ten. var. pityusa (Steven) Silba
Parent Species:
Common Name(s):
English Pitsundian Pine
Taxonomic Source(s): Farjon, A. 2010. A Handbook of the World's Conifers. Koninklijke Brill, Leiden.
Taxonomic Notes: Pinus pityusa Steven is a synonym of P. brutia var. pityusa (Steven) Silba according to The Plant List (2010) but accepted according to Czerepanov (1 5) and Takhtajan (2003-2008).

REF.: A. L. Takhtajan (ed.). 2003-2008. Caucasus Flora Conspectus. Vol. 3(1). St. Petersburg. (in Russian). [Тахтаджян, А. Л. (ред.) 2003-2008. Конспект флоры Кавказа. Тт. 1, 2, 3(1). Санкт-Петербург.]

Czerepanov, S. K. 1 5. Vascular plants of Russia and adjacent states (former USSR). Cambridge.

N. Ketskhoveli, A. Kharadze and R. Gagnidze (eds.) 1 71. Flora of Georgia. 2nd ed. Tbilisi: Metsniereba. Vol. I. 158 p. (in Georgian)

S. A. Litvinskaya (ed.) 2007. Red data Book of Krasnodar Kray. Plants and Fungi. 2nd ed. Krasnodar. 640 p. (in Russian) [Красная книга Краснодарского края. Растения и грибы. Издание второе. Отв. ред. Литвинская, С. А. Краснодар, 2007. 640 с.]

Litvinskaya, S. A. and Murtazaliev, R. A. 2008. Caucasian Elements in the Flora of the Russian Caucasus: Geography, Sozology, Ecology. Krasnodar. 410 p. (in Russian) [Литвинская, С.А., Муртазалиев, Р.А. 2008. Кавказский элемент во флоре Российского Кавказа: география, созология, экология. Краснодар. 410 с.]

Timukhin, I. N. 2006. Flora of vascular plants if Sochi National park (a preliminary checklist). In: B. S. Tuniev (ed.). Inventory of the principal taxonomic groups of communities, sozological studies of the National Park – first action summary of activities. Moscow, 2: 41-83. (in Russian) [Тимухин, И. Н. 2006. Флора сосудистых растений Сочинского национального парка (предварительный список). Под ред. Б.С. Туниева. Инвентаризация основных таксономических групп и сообществ, созологические исследования национального парка – первые итоги первого в России национального парка. М. Вып. 2. С. 41–83. ]

The Plant List (2010). Version 1. Published on the Internet; (accessed 22nd July, 2011).

V. D. Golovanov et al. (ed.) 1 88. Red Data Book of RSFSR. Plants. Moscow. 5 0 p. (in Russian) [В. Д. Голованов и др. (ред.) 1 88. Красная книга РСФСР. Растения. М. 5 0 с.]

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable B2ab(ii,iii,v) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2013
Date Assessed: 2011-08-03
Assessor(s): Farjon, A.
Reviewer(s): Luscombe, D & Thomas, P.

The extent of occurrence (EOO) of this variety has not been calculated due to a lack of herbarium specimens available for mapping. Although it extends in scattered localities along the coast for several hundred kilometres its area of occupancy (AOO) is small, certainly not above 1,000 km². Continuing decline is inferred mainly from development along the Crimean coast which has removed suitable habitat. The variety therefore qualifies for listing as Vulnerable.

Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Confined to the Caucasus region: Krasnodar, Transcaucasia (Abkhazia); Georgia; Ukraine: Krym [Crimea].
Countries occurrence:
Georgia; Russian Federation
Additional data:
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:100
Number of Locations:4-5
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:This variety occurs in disjunct subpopulations along the NE coast of the Black Sea. According to Little and Critchfield’s (1966) map 31 there are 4-5 locations. According to ArcView mapping based on herbarium collections using the GeoCat Red List Tool there are four locations (subpopulations).
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Grows on coastal mountains and hills around the NE section of the Black Sea.

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: No uses are recorded but it is probably being used locally.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Development along the coast of the Black Sea, especially near Yalta, has and continues to destroy suitable habitat. This may be the case also in locations further east.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This taxon is present in a few protected areas but  most localities with this pine are unprotected.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.4. Forest - Temperate
0. Root -> 6. Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks)
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
3. Species management -> 3.1. Species management -> 3.1.1. Harvest management
3. Species management -> 3.2. Species recovery
5. Law & policy -> 5.1. Legislation -> 5.1.1. International level
5. Law & policy -> 5.1. Legislation -> 5.1.2. National level
5. Law & policy -> 5.4. Compliance and enforcement -> 5.4.2. National level

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
  Action Recovery plan:No
  Systematic monitoring scheme:No
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
  Area based regional management plan:No
In-Place Species Management
  Harvest management plan:No
  Successfully reintroduced or introduced beningly:No
  Subject to ex-situ conservation:No
In-Place Education
  Subject to recent education and awareness programmes:No
  Included in international legislation:No
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:No
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.3. Tourism & recreation areas
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.5. Motivation Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

6. Human intrusions & disturbance -> 6.1. Recreational activities
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.2. Species disturbance

7. Natural system modifications -> 7.1. Fire & fire suppression -> 7.1.3. Trend Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

♦  Pets/display animals, horticulture
 Local : ✓ 

Bibliography [top]

IUCN. 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2013.1). Available at: (Accessed: 12 June 2013).

Ketskhoveli, N., Kharadze, A. and Gagnidze , R. (eds). 1970-2011. Flora of Georgia. 2nd ed., vols. I-XVI. Metsniereba, Tbilisi. (in Georgian) [N. Ketskhoveli, A. Kharadze, R. Gagnidze (red.). 1971-2011. Sakartvelos flora, me-2 gam., t. 1-16. Metsniereba, Tbilisi.].

Citation: Farjon, A. 2013. Pinus brutia var. pityusa. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T33990A2839662. . Downloaded on 25 September 2018.
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