Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Pinopsida Pinales Pinaceae

Scientific Name: Pinus radiata var. binata
Species Authority: (Engelm.) Lemmon
Parent Species:
Common Name(s):
English Guadalupe Island Pine, Insignis Pine, Cedros Island Pine, Radiata Pine
Spanish Pino Insigne
Pinus insignis Douglas ex Poudon variety binata Engelm.
Taxonomic Source(s): Farjon, A. 2010. A Handbook of the World's Conifers. Koninklijke Brill, Leiden.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable D2 ver 3.1
Year Published: 2013
Date Assessed: 2011-04-15
Assessor(s): Farjon, A.
Reviewer(s): Perez de la Rosa, J. & Thomas, P.

The successful eradication of goats recently on Guadalupe Island raises expectations that the subpopulation on that island may recover from a low of ca. 250 (over-)mature trees at present. The subpopulation(s) on Cedros Island are larger (a few thousand trees, but no census made) and regenerating well in the absence of goats.The restricted area of occupancy and two locations on two islands and the existence of a deadly pathogen affecting the mainland variety of this species puts the island variety at risk if that pathogen was introduced on one or both of the islands. It therefore meets criterion D2 for listing as Vulnerable.

Previously published Red List assessments:
1998 Endangered (EN)
1998 Endangered (E)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Recorded from Guadelupe Island, an uninhabited island 250 km off the mainland, and from Cedros Island (part of Baja-California), Mexico. The name P. binnata var. cedrosensis is used by some people, for the Cedros Island population.

The pines on Guadalupe Island are narrowly distributed at the north end of the island, along the uppermost slopes of the central ridge.
Countries occurrence:
Mexico (Baja California, Guadalupe I.)
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:20
Number of Locations:2
Lower elevation limit (metres):300
Upper elevation limit (metres):1100
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:On Guadalupe Island, the subpopulation has 200-250 (over-)mature trees and several hundred seedlings. On Cedros Island, there are two main subpopulations: a central and northern subpopulation, separated by approximately 13 km, with some scattered trees and small stands outside these two occurrences. The pines are largely restricted to the upper, western slopes of the northern mountain range, which extends from the central to northern regions of Cedros Island in roughly a north-south alignment. There is no comprehensive census, but there are thousands of trees and no apparent losses of habitat over the last several decades. In May 2001, the pines were described as fairly young over much of the current range, with seedlings in all stands.
Current Population Trend:Stable
Additional data:
Continuing decline of mature individuals:No
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This variety forms small stands or grows as isolated trees on Guadalupe Island; on Cedros Island it is more often associated with other trees.
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:No
Generation Length (years):30

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: No uses are recorded of this variety. It is known that seeds were collected and used to raise plants, but unknown if these have found their way outside nurseries that grew them as an ex situ conservation effort. As far as known, all widely planted trees of Monterey or Radiata Pine are of provenances from the mainland variety radiata.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): This variety, confined to two islands, was until very recently under serious threat from feral goats on Guadalupe Island, which is almost uninhabited. It is estimated that only 200-250 (over-)mature trees remain there and reproduction is scarce. On Cedros Island, although the pines are currently regenerating well, they remain vulnerable to the introduction of pitch canker from the nearby Mexican mainland, and to the uncertain impacts of possibly frequent fires, climate change, and some introduced species. No evidence of the pitch canker disease (caused by the fungus Fusarium circinatum) that has affected mainland (California) subpopulations of P. radiata var. radiata was found on either island.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Total eradication of goats appears to be difficult, but apparently has been achieved recently. Exclosures to keep goats out of some of the most sensitive areas have been realized with help from outside and this has helped establishment of several hundred pine seedlings. Pinus radiata var. binata does better on Cedros Island which has (had) no feral goats. It is hoped that with the removal of goats on Guadalupe Island the population will increase in future.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.4. Forest - Temperate
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
3. Shrubland -> 3.8. Shrubland - Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
2. Land/water management -> 2.3. Habitat & natural process restoration

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
  Action Recovery plan:Yes
  Systematic monitoring scheme:Yes
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
  Area based regional management plan:Yes
In-Place Species Management
  Harvest management plan:No
  Successfully reintroduced or introduced beningly:Yes
  Subject to ex-situ conservation:Yes
In-Place Education
  Subject to recent education and awareness programmes:Yes
  Included in international legislation:No
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:No
8. Invasive & other problematic species & genes -> 8.1. Invasive non-native/alien species -> 8.1.2. Named species (Capra hircus)
♦ timing: Past, Unlikely to Return ♦ scope: Whole (>90%) ♦ severity: Rapid Declines ⇒ Impact score: Past Impact 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.2. Species disturbance
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.3. Indirect species effects -> 2.3.7. Reduced reproductive success

3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

Bibliography [top]

IUCN. 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2013.1). Available at: (Accessed: 12 June 2013).

Ledig, F.T., Vargas-Hernández, J.J. and Johnsen, K.H. 1998. The conservation of forest genetic resources: Case histories from Canada, Mexico, and the United States. Journal of Forestry 96: 32–41.

Perry, J.P. 1991. The Pines of Mexico and Central America. Timber Press, Portland.

Rogers, D.L. 2002. In situ genetic conservation of Monterey pine (Pinus radiata D. Don): Information and recommendations. Report No. 26. University of California Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Genetic Resources Conservation Program, Davis CA USA.

Rogers, D.L., Vargas-Hernández, J.J., Matheson, A.C. and Guerra Santos, J.J. 2002. The Mexican Island Populations of Pinus radiata: An international expedition and ongoing collaboration for genetic conservation. Forest Genetic Resources Bulletin No. 30, Food and Agriculture Organization, United Nations, Rome, Italy.

The Nature Conservancy. 1996. Natural Heritage Central Database. (Status and distribution data on Latin American plants, developed in collaboration with Latin American Conservation Data Centers and Missouri Botanical Garden).

Tibor, D. (compiler) 1998. Threatened tree information from the California Native Plant Society (unpublished).

Citation: Farjon, A. 2013. Pinus radiata var. binata. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T33553A2837846. . Downloaded on 04 October 2015.
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