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Shorea gratissima 

Scope: Global
Language: English
Status_ne_offStatus_dd_offStatus_lc_offStatus_nt_offStatus_vu_offStatus_en_onStatus_cr_offStatus_ew_offStatus_ex_off

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Magnoliopsida Theales Dipterocarpaceae

Scientific Name: Shorea gratissima Dyer

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered A2cd ver 3.1
Year Published: 2017
Date Assessed: 2017-03-08
Assessor(s): Pooma, R., Barstow, M. & Newman, M.
Reviewer(s): Chua, L.S.L.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Rivers, M.C.
Justification:
Shorea gratissima is a large timber, tree species. It is native to Brunei, Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand and Myanmar. The species is globally assessed as Endangered. The population has undergone more than a 50% reduction in the past three generations and decline will continue into the future as threats to species have not ceased. The species is routinely threatened by habitat loss as forests are cleared for agricultural expansion. It is also at risk from selective logging for its commercially valuable timber. The species is found within protected areas but is poorly represented within ex situ collections. Further ex situ and in situ conservation of the species needs to occur including habitat protection and harvest management. It is also recommended further information is gathered on population and habitat decline. The sustainable use of this species needs to be encouraged.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is native to Indochina and Malesia. It is present in Myanmar, Peninsular Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Sumatra and Borneo. On Borneo the species is found in Sabah, Kalimantan and Brunei Darussalam. The species is found from sea level to 1,200 m asl and has an estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) of over 2,000,000 km2.
Countries occurrence:
Native:
Brunei Darussalam; Indonesia (Kalimantan, Sumatera); Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah); Myanmar; Singapore; Thailand
Additional data:
Upper elevation limit (metres):1200
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:This tree seems to be fairly scarce with most of the known trees being confined to small fragments. In Peninsula Malaysia about 720 trees are known from two sub-populations, and there are thought to be fewer than 10 sub-populations in total across the country. There are estimated to be about 21,000 adult stems in Permanent Reserved Forests in Peninsular Malaysia (Chua et al. 2010) but total area of occupancy (AOO) is below 2,000 km2. Within Sabah the species is locally abundant but largely absent from forests (Ashton 2004). The species has a generation length of over 100 years. Overall population size is not known but the population appears fragmented and is currently in decline. It has undergone more than a 50% reduction in the past three generations (+300 years) due to logging and agricultural expansion. These remain threats to the species so decline will continue into the future but at a yet unknown rate.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This large tree species can grow up to 60 m tall (Ashton 2004). The species grows within mixed dipterocarp forests often on hills near the coast. It is found in lowland forests. The species is apomictic (Bawa et al. 1998). Species habitat is in decline in area, extent and occurrence due to the expansion of agriculture across the species range.
Systems:Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes
Generation Length (years):100

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: This species is used for its medium hardwood timber which is has commercial value.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): This species is threatened by exploitation for its timber. It is also threatened by habitat loss caused by the clear cutting of forest for the expansion of agriculture, especially agro-industry in the Malaysian parts of its range. The species may be threatened by loss of genetic diversity due to the fragmentation of the population and its tendency towards apomixis.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: The species is reported from only two ex situ collections (BGCI 2017). Further ex situ collections of this species should be made which encompass the species entire native range. The species occurs in protected areas across its range. Within Malaysia it is assessed as Vulnerable B2ab(iii) (Chua et al. 2010). Within Singapore the species is considered critically endangered (Chong et al. 2009). It is recommended that the remaining habitat of the species is protected. Further information on population and habitat decline outside of Malaysia should be investigated. The harvest and trade of this species should be monitored and managed to reduce unsustainable uptake from the wild. A survey of genetic structure and diversity should also occur.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
suitability:Suitable  
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
1. Land/water protection -> 1.2. Resource & habitat protection
3. Species management -> 3.1. Species management -> 3.1.1. Harvest management
3. Species management -> 3.4. Ex-situ conservation -> 3.4.2. Genome resource bank

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
  Subject to ex-situ conservation:Yes
In-Place Education
2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.2. Small-holder farming
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Unknown ♦ severity:Rapid Declines ⇒ Impact score:Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.3. Agro-industry farming
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Unknown ♦ severity:Rapid Declines ⇒ Impact score:Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.1. Intentional use: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest]
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Unknown ♦ severity:Rapid Declines ⇒ Impact score:Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.2. Intentional use: (large scale) [harvest]
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Unknown ♦ severity:Rapid Declines ⇒ Impact score:Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends
3. Monitoring -> 3.2. Harvest level trends
3. Monitoring -> 3.3. Trade trends
3. Monitoring -> 3.4. Habitat trends

Bibliography [top]

Ashton, P.S. 2004. Dipterocarpaceae. In: E. Soepadmo, L.G. Saw and R.C.K. Chung (eds), Tree Flora of Sabah and Sarawak, pp. 63-388. Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Sabah Forestry Department, Sandakan and Sarawak Forestry Department, Kuching.

Bawa, K.S. 1998. Conservation of Genetic Resources in the Dipterocarpaceae. In: Appanah, S and Turnball, J.M (eds), A review of Dipterocarps: Taxonomy, Ecology and silviculture, pp. 45-56. Centre for International Forestry Research, Jakarta.

BGCI. 2017. PlantSearch. Botanic Gardens Conservation International, London. Available at: www.bgci.org/plant_search.php.

Chong, K.Y., Tan, H.T.W. and Corlett, R.T. 2009. A Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore: Native, Naturalised and Cultivated. Singapore Available at: http://rmbr.nus.edu.sg/raffles_museum_pub/flora_of_singapore_tc.pdf.

Chua, L.S.L., Suhaida, M., Hamidah, M. and Saw, L.G. 2010. Malaysia Plant Red List : Peninsular Malaysian Dipterocarpaceae. Research Pamphlet No. 129. Forest Research Institute Malaysia.

IUCN. 2017. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2017-3. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 7 December 2017).


Citation: Pooma, R., Barstow, M. & Newman, M. 2017. Shorea gratissima. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T33026A2831514. . Downloaded on 18 December 2017.
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