|Scientific Name:||Shorea gratissima Dyer|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Endangered A2cd ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Pooma, R., Barstow, M. & Newman, M.|
Shorea gratissima is a large timber, tree species. It is native to Brunei, Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand and Myanmar. The species is globally assessed as Endangered. The population has undergone more than a 50% reduction in the past three generations and decline will continue into the future as threats to species have not ceased. The species is routinely threatened by habitat loss as forests are cleared for agricultural expansion. It is also at risk from selective logging for its commercially valuable timber. The species is found within protected areas but is poorly represented within ex situ collections. Further ex situ and in situ conservation of the species needs to occur including habitat protection and harvest management. It is also recommended further information is gathered on population and habitat decline. The sustainable use of this species needs to be encouraged.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||This species is native to Indochina and Malesia. It is present in Myanmar, Peninsular Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Sumatra and Borneo. On Borneo the species is found in Sabah, Kalimantan and Brunei Darussalam. The species is found from sea level to 1,200 m asl and has an estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) of over 2,000,000 km2.|
Native:Brunei Darussalam; Indonesia (Kalimantan, Sumatera); Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah); Myanmar; Singapore; Thailand
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||This tree seems to be fairly scarce with most of the known trees being confined to small fragments. In Peninsula Malaysia about 720 trees are known from two sub-populations, and there are thought to be fewer than 10 sub-populations in total across the country. There are estimated to be about 21,000 adult stems in Permanent Reserved Forests in Peninsular Malaysia (Chua et al. 2010) but total area of occupancy (AOO) is below 2,000 km2. Within Sabah the species is locally abundant but largely absent from forests (Ashton 2004). The species has a generation length of over 100 years. Overall population size is not known but the population appears fragmented and is currently in decline. It has undergone more than a 50% reduction in the past three generations (+300 years) due to logging and agricultural expansion. These remain threats to the species so decline will continue into the future but at a yet unknown rate.|
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This large tree species can grow up to 60 m tall (Ashton 2004). The species grows within mixed dipterocarp forests often on hills near the coast. It is found in lowland forests. The species is apomictic (Bawa et al. 1998). Species habitat is in decline in area, extent and occurrence due to the expansion of agriculture across the species range.|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Yes|
|Generation Length (years):||100|
|Use and Trade:||This species is used for its medium hardwood timber which is has commercial value.|
|Major Threat(s):||This species is threatened by exploitation for its timber. It is also threatened by habitat loss caused by the clear cutting of forest for the expansion of agriculture, especially agro-industry in the Malaysian parts of its range. The species may be threatened by loss of genetic diversity due to the fragmentation of the population and its tendency towards apomixis.|
|Conservation Actions:||The species is reported from only two ex situ collections (BGCI 2017). Further ex situ collections of this species should be made which encompass the species entire native range. The species occurs in protected areas across its range. Within Malaysia it is assessed as Vulnerable B2ab(iii) (Chua et al. 2010). Within Singapore the species is considered critically endangered (Chong et al. 2009). It is recommended that the remaining habitat of the species is protected. Further information on population and habitat decline outside of Malaysia should be investigated. The harvest and trade of this species should be monitored and managed to reduce unsustainable uptake from the wild. A survey of genetic structure and diversity should also occur.|
Ashton, P.S. 2004. Dipterocarpaceae. In: E. Soepadmo, L.G. Saw and R.C.K. Chung (eds), Tree Flora of Sabah and Sarawak, pp. 63-388. Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Sabah Forestry Department, Sandakan and Sarawak Forestry Department, Kuching.
Bawa, K.S. 1998. Conservation of Genetic Resources in the Dipterocarpaceae. In: Appanah, S and Turnball, J.M (eds), A review of Dipterocarps: Taxonomy, Ecology and silviculture, pp. 45-56. Centre for International Forestry Research, Jakarta.
BGCI. 2017. PlantSearch. Botanic Gardens Conservation International, London. Available at: www.bgci.org/plant_search.php.
Chong, K.Y., Tan, H.T.W. and Corlett, R.T. 2009. A Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore: Native, Naturalised and Cultivated. Singapore Available at: http://rmbr.nus.edu.sg/raffles_museum_pub/flora_of_singapore_tc.pdf.
Chua, L.S.L., Suhaida, M., Hamidah, M. and Saw, L.G. 2010. Malaysia Plant Red List : Peninsular Malaysian Dipterocarpaceae. Research Pamphlet No. 129. Forest Research Institute Malaysia.
IUCN. 2017. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2017-3. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 7 December 2017).
|Citation:||Pooma, R., Barstow, M. & Newman, M. 2017. Shorea gratissima. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T33026A2831514.Downloaded on 17 March 2018.|