|Scientific Name:||Araucaria angustifolia|
|Species Authority:||(Bertol.) Kuntze|
Columbea angustifolia Bertol.
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Critically Endangered A1cd ver 3.1|
|Reviewer/s:||Farjon, A. & Hilton-Taylor, C. (Conifer Red List Authority)|
This species was formerly evaluated as VU A1d, B1+B2b under the 1994 IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria (Farjon and Page 1999) but published data cited in Enright and Hill (1995) indicate that a reduction of 97% has taken place due to logging since the beginning of the 20th century. Around 1900 the species is estimated to have had an area of occupancy of ca. 20 million ha, of this LANDSAT-II imagery analysed by Gantzel (1982) showed that only 565,419 ha remained by 1982. Logging at that time was still continuing at an estimated rate of 80,000 ha per year. This amounts to a forest reduction of over 97% within three tree generations. Plantation forestry with Pinus and Eucalyptus as well as other land use have made restoration unlikely in much of the area; on the other hand plantation of Araucarias reached 90,000 ha in the mid 1990s. If we assume that the ban on logging (the reason for the past decline) is effectively enforced so that further decline has been halted, and that the species has started to recover then Araucaria angustifolia can be listed as Critically Endangered under criterion A1cd (if no recovery is evident then the listing would have to change to CR A2cd indicating that management has not been effective and the species is continuing to decline).
|Range Description:||It occurs in southeastern Brazil (primarily in the states of Paraná, Santa Catarina, Rio Grande Do Sul, and locally in São Paulo, Minas Gerais and Rio De Janeiro) and adjacent areas of Argentina (Misiones) and Paraguay. Found at an altitude of 500-1,800 m in Brazil and 500-2,300 m in the adjoining countries.|
Native:Argentina (Misiones); Brazil (Minas Gerais, Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, São Paulo); Paraguay
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Although an abundant species, it has undergone continuous decline in the extent of its occurrence through logging. The original extent of Araucaria forest, estimated at 200,000 km², is believed to have declined by more than 97% in the last century. In Rio Grande do Sul, for instance, the forest area, over half of which was made up of Araucaria, has plummeted from 40% land cover to 3% today. Araucaria forest in Sâo Paulo covers 4.3% of its original area. The Paraguay population is small and confined to Alto Paraná. Seeding trees are scarce. Small relict populations, covering less than 1,000 ha, in north-east Misiones, Argentina, are all that remain of the forest that in 1960 covered 210,000 ha. The species is included on the official list compiled by IBAMA of threatened Brazilian plants.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Grows in subtropical forest on acidic soils. Araucaria is usually dioecious, rarely monoecious and like other conifers is wind pollinated. pollen maturation and pollination in Brazil occur from August through October. The seed cones begin to mature two years after pollination, and the complete cycle from primitive carpel to seed takes about four years. Young trees begin to set seed between 12 and 15 years of age. Seeds are dispersed between May and August. The species appears to be able to regenerate fairly quickly.|
|Major Threat(s):||Paraná pine is the most important timber species in Brazil. In addition to the massive exploitation for timber, 3,400 tonnes per annum of fruit and seeds are collected for human consumption. Loss of habitat for planting other agricultural crops (wheat, soya and corn) is also a threat.|
|Conservation Actions:||Since 2001 there has been an official Brazilian ban on log exports of this species. The Brazilian Government is also promotong several initiatives to protect Araucaria genetic resources.|
Chebez, Juan Carlos. 1994. Los que se van. Buenos Aires, Argentina: Albatros.
Chudnoff, M. 1984. Tropical Timbers of the World. Forest Products Laboratory Madison, United States Department of Agriculture, Wisconsin.
Enright, N.J. and Hill, R.S. 1995. Ecology of the Southern Conifers. Melbourne University Press, Melbourne.
FAO Forestry Department. 1986. Databook on endangered tree and shrub species and their provenances. FAO, Rome.
Farjon, A. and Page, C.N. (compilers) 1999. Conifers. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. IUCN/SSC Conifer Specialist Group. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
Farjon, A. et al. 1998. Data collection forms for conifer species completed by the IUCN/SSC Conifer Specialist Group between 1996 and 1998.
Gantzel, O.L. 1982. Avaliação das florestas de Araucaria angustifolia (Bert.) O. Ktze. do sul do Brasil, através de imagens do satélite LANDSAT-II. Revista Floresta 28: 38-40.
Harcourt, C.S. and Sayer, J.A. 1996. The conservation atlas of tropical forests: The Americas. Simon and Schuster Macmillan. New York.
Hilton-Taylor, C. 2000. 2000 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
IBAMA. 1992. Lista oficial de espécies da flora Brasileira ameaçadas de extinçao (unpublished).
IUCN. 2006. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded on 04 May 2006.
Ntima, O.O. 1968. The Araucarias - fast growing timber trees of the tropics.
Oldfield, S., Lusty, C. and MacKinven, A. (compilers). 1998. The World List of Threatened Trees. World Conservation Press, Cambridge, UK.
Ortega Torres, E., Stutz de Ortega, V. and Spichiger, R. 1989. Noventa Especies Frestales del Paraguay.
The Nature Conservancy. 1996. Natural Heritage Central Database. (Status and distribution data on Latin American plants, developed in collaboration with Latin American Conservation Data Centers and Missouri Botanical Garden).
Varty, N. 1996. Data collection forms for Brazilian Atlantic forest species.
WCMC. (comp.) 1996. Report of the Second Regional Workshop, held at CATIE, Turrialba, Costa Rica, 18-20 November 1996. Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees project (unpublished).
|Citation:||Farjon, A. 2006. Araucaria angustifolia. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 20 June 2013.|
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