|Scientific Name:||Vatica mangachapoi Blanco|
|Taxonomic Notes:||Two subspecies are recognized: subsp. mangachapoi and subsp. obtusifolia|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Vulnerable A2c ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Pooma, R., Barstow, M. & Newman, M.|
Vatica mangachapoi is a small to large tree species. It is native to Thailand, Brunei, Malaysia, Philippines and China. Two subspecies of the species are recognised subsp. obtusifolia and subsp. mangachapoi. The former has a restricted distribution, being found only in the Philippines and Sabah. The species as a whole is fairly common but is currently decline. On the island of Hainan population decline is predicted to be high due to between a 58% and 78% decline in natural forest cover since the 1950's. Specifically within the country of Wanning, where Vatica mangachapoi is found the forest has been estimated to decline by 35% between 1991 and 2008. This decline has been taken as a proxy and overall we estimate population has decline by at least 30%in the last three generations. Overall the species is of conservation concern across much of its range as this tree is threatened by habitat loss and over exploitation. The species is globally assessed Vulnerable. It is recommended that further information on habitat loss is gathered and further monitoring and assessment of population decline should also occur. The remaining species habitat should be protected and that further ex situ collections are made.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||This species is native to Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah, Sarawak, Brunei Darussalam, the Philippines and Hainan, China (Xiwen et al. 2007). Two subspecies of Vatica magachapoi are recognised: subsp. mangachapoi and subsp. obtusifolia. Subspecies magachapoi has the species full distribution except China and can be found up to 800 m asl (Chua et al. 2010, Ashton 2004, de Guzman et al. 1986). While subsp. obtusifolia is only found in Sabah and the Philippines and only to an elevation of 75 m asl (Chua et al. 2010, Ashton 2004, de Guzman et al. 1986). This subspecies has a much smaller extent of occurrence (EOO). Overall, the species has an EOO that exceeds 3 million km2.|
Native:Brunei Darussalam; China (Hainan); Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah, Sarawak); Philippines
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Vatica mangachapoi is a fairly common species. Subspecies mangachapoi is however much more common and widespread than subsp. obtusifolia. The former is found widely distributed across the Philippines but population has been depleted (de Guzman et al. 1986) and the subspecies is locally common in Sarawak (Ashton 2004). Within peninsular Malaysia this subspecies is only found in the north of the country and future decline population is predicted due to a decline in habitat range (Chua et al. 2010). In the Philippines and in Sarawak subsp. obtusifolia is considered rare (de Guzaman et al. 1986, Ahston 2004). This subspecies also shows fragmentation and habitat restriction. In Hainan, Vatica mangachapoi is one of the more common forest species (Liu et al. 2011), however, there has been extensive deforestation in Hainan. Between 1950 and 1980 there was an estimated forest loss of 58% (Wangchen 1983) and more recently between 1991 and 2008 it was calculated that an additional further 20% of native forest cover had been lost (Zhang and Zhu 2012). This deforestation is greatest below 760 m asl, within the reported elevation range of V. mangachapoi so the species is likely to be affected. We do not know exactly how this species is affected by deforestation on Hainan but if forest loss is due to large scale urban and agricultural expansion it can be taken as a proxy for population decline. Furthermore, within the county of Wanning where the species is known to occur (Li et al. 2011) there has been an estimated 35% forest loss between 1991 and 2008 (Zhang et al. 2010). The species is threatened by habitat loss across its native range and therefore the extent of decline observed within Hainan is likely to be representative of the loss of the species across its native range. Overall, although the species is still common we estimate that Vatica mangachapoi population has declined by at least 30% over the last three generations (300 years).|
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Vatica magachapoi is a small or large tree species growing to between 12 and 20 m in height depending on the subspecies (de Guzman et al. 1986). The species is found in lowland, forests areas. Subspecies obtusifolia is most commonly found on flat or ridged, dry rocky areas; it is also a predominantly coastal species (de Guzman et al. 1986, Ashton 2004). While subsp. mangachapoi is found in deeps soils and in mixed peat swamp forest; also on hills and in coastal areas (Ashton 2004, Chua et al. 2010). In Hainan the species is found on forested hill and on mountain slopes (Xiwen et al. 2007). Species habitat is declining in area extent and quality.|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Yes|
|Generation Length (years):||100|
|Use and Trade:||The species is used for timber. The wood is very durable and strong so can be used for building boats, bridges and houses (Xiwen et al. 2007).|
|Major Threat(s):||The species is threatened by habitat loss due to conversion to agricultural land. The species is also at risk from logging for timber.|
|Conservation Actions:||This species is reported from two ex situ collections (BGCI 2017). Further ex situ collections of this species should be made which are representative of the entire species range. The species is found within protected areas. Within China the species is assessed as Vulnerable (MEP 2014). Within Malaysia subsp. mangachapoi is assessed as Vulnerable (Chua et al. 2010). Within the Philippines both subspecies are considered Vulnerable due to population decline (Fernando et al. 2008). It is recommended that there is thorough investigation into population size and decline. The remaining habitat of the species should also be protected or sustainable managed.|
Ashton, P.S. 2004. Dipterocarpaceae. In: E. Soepadmo, L.G. Saw and R.C.K. Chung (eds), Tree Flora of Sabah and Sarawak, pp. 63-388. Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Sabah Forestry Department, Sandakan and Sarawak Forestry Department, Kuching.
BGCI. 2017. PlantSearch. Botanic Gardens Conservation International, London. Available at: www.bgci.org/plant_search.php.
Chua, L.S.L., Suhaida, M., Hamidah, M. and Saw, L.G. 2010. Malaysia Plant Red List : Peninsular Malaysian Dipterocarpaceae. Research Pamphlet No. 129. Forest Research Institute Malaysia.
de Guzman, E.D., Umali, R.M. and Sotalbo, E.D. 1986. Dipterocarps and non Dipterocarps. Guide to Philippine Flora and Fauna, pp. 1-73. JMC Press Incorporated, Manila.
Fernando, E.S., Co, L.L., Lagunzad, D.A., Gruezo, W.S., Barcelona, J.F., Madulid, D.A., Lapis, A.B., Texon, G.I., Manila, A.C.and Zamora P.M. 2008. Threatened Plants of the Philippines: A Preliminary Assessment. Available at: http://www.chm.ph/index.php?option=com_docman&task=doc_details&gid=9&Itemid=59. (Accessed: 4 May 2011).
IUCN. 2017. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2017-3. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 7 December 2017).
Liu, S. and Hao, Q. 2011. Community Structure and Natural Regeneration Characteristics of Vatica mangachapoi Forest in Shimei Bay. Forest Resources Management 2.
Ministry of Environmental Protection and the Chinese Academy of Sciences. 2014. Chinese Red List of biodiversity - the volume of higher plants.
Wangcheng, Q. 1983. Effects of deforestation on flood characteristics with particular reference to Hainan Island, China. Proceedings of the Hamburg Symposium, August 1983: 249-257.
Xiwen, L., Jie, L. and Ashton, P.S. 2007. Dipterocarpaceae. Flora of China 12: 48-54.
Zhang, M. and Zhu, J. 2012. Natural Forest Change in Hainan, China, 1991-2008 and Conservation Suggestions. In: Padmini Sudarshana (ed.), Tropical Forests, pp. 298-304. InTechOpen.
Zhang, M., Fellowes, J.R., Jiang, X., Wang, W., Chan, B.P.L., Ren, G. and Zhu, J. 2010. Degradation of tropical forest in Hainan, China, 1991–2008: Conservation implications for Hainan Gibbon (Nomascus hainanus). Biological Conservation 143: 1397-1404.
|Citation:||Pooma, R., Barstow, M. & Newman, M. 2017. Vatica mangachapoi. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T32461A2819415.Downloaded on 26 May 2018.|
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