Swietenia macrophylla 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Magnoliopsida Sapindales Meliaceae

Scientific Name: Swietenia macrophylla King
Common Name(s):
English Big Leaf Mahogany, Big-leaf Mahogany, Bigleaf Mahogany, Brazilian Mahogany, Honduras Mahogany, Large-leaved Mahogany
French Mahogani Grands Feuilles
Spanish Caoba, Mara, Mogno

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable A1cd+2cd ver 2.3
Year Published: 1998
Date Assessed: 1998-01-01
Needs updating
Assessor(s): World Conservation Monitoring Centre

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:A very large timber tree which has an extensive natural distribution.
Countries occurrence:
Belize; Bolivia, Plurinational States of; Brazil (Acre, Amazonas, Goiás, Maranhão, Mato Grosso, Pará, Rondônia, Tocantins); Colombia; Costa Rica; Dominica; Ecuador; El Salvador; French Guiana; Guatemala; Guyana; Honduras; Mexico (Quintana Roo); Nicaragua; Panama; Peru; Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of
Saint Lucia
Present - origin uncertain:
Guadeloupe; Martinique; Montserrat; Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Additional data:
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:Basic inventories are lacking for most of its range. Good stands apparently still remain in parts of Brazil and Bolivia.
Additional data:

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Various forest types. The ecology of northern subpopulations is relatively well understood whereas virtually nothing is known about Amazonian subpopulations.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): This species is the most commercially important of the mahoganies. The level of exploitation has led to the exhaustion of supplies particularly in the northern parts of its range. Regeneration of the species is stochastic, depending in nature on large-scale disturbance. This ecological strategy makes mahogany vulnerable to logging regimes. Harvesting and processing are generally only 50 percent efficient. There is, at present, little economic incentive to manage natural stands sustainably.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: International trade in timber of the species is subject to the provisions of Appendix II of CITES. The Appendix II listing covers the Neotropical populations (including logs, sawn wood, veneer sheets and plywood) and entered into effect on 15 November 2003. Export quotas have been granted to certain countries.

Classifications [top]

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.5. Motivation Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

Bibliography [top]

Asociación Nacional para la Conservación de la Naturaleza. 1990. List of threatened and vulnerable plants of Panama (unpublished).

Caribbean Conservation Association (compiler) 1991. St Lucia: country environmental profile. Caribbean Conservation Association, St Michael, Barbados.

Centro de Datos para la Conservación. 1986. Lista Preliminar de Plantas Especiales. Centro de Datos para la Conservación, Limón, Peru.

Centro de Datos para la Conservación-CDC-CVC. 1980. Lista preliminar de plantas especiales del Centro de Datos para la conservación, CDC-CVC (unpublished).

Erfurth, T. and Rusche, H. 1976. The marketing of tropical wood. FAO, Rome.

García, R.D. and Olmsted, I. 1987. Listado florístico de la Reserva Sian Ka'an. Puerto Morelos, Quintana Roo, Mexico.

Global Tree Specialist Group. For more information, see the Specialist Group website

Howard, R.A. (ed.) 1974. Flora of the Lesser Antilles; Leeward and Windward Islands. Arnold Arboretum, Jamaica Plain, Mass. 6 vols, 1974-1989.

IBAMA. 1992. Lista oficial de espécies da flora Brasileira ameaçadas de extinçao (unpublished).

Jiménez Madrigal, Q. 1993. Arboles maderables en peligro de extinción en Costa Rica. Museo Nacional de Costa Rica, San José, Costa Rica.

Killeen, T. 1997. Comments on the species summaries for Bolivia.

Oldfield, S. 1995. Plants and the 1994 CITES conference. Plant Talk 1: 12-13.

Oldfield, S., Lusty, C. and MacKinven, A. (compilers). 1998. The World List of Threatened Trees. World Conservation Press, Cambridge, UK.

Pennington, T.D. 1981. Flora Neotropica: Meliaceae. Monograph 28. New York Botanical Garden, New York.

Sociedade Botânica do Brasil. 1992. Centuria Plantarum Brasiliensium Extintionis Minitata. Sociedade Botânica do Brasil.

Standley, P.C., Steyermark, J.A. and Williams, L.O. 1946. Flora of Guatemala. Fieldiana Botany 24.

Stevens, D. 1987. Annotations to: List of threatened plants of Middle America.

Citation: World Conservation Monitoring Centre. 1998. Swietenia macrophylla. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 1998: e.T32293A9688025. . Downloaded on 22 September 2018.
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