|Scientific Name:||Olea chimanimani Kupicha|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Darbyshire, I., Timberlake, J., Mapaura, A., Chelene, I. & Hadj-Hammou, J.|
|Reviewer(s):||Burrows, J.E. & Hilton-Taylor, C.|
Although it has a very limited range, being restricted to the sandstone/quartzite outcrops of the Chimanimani massif, this species is locally frequent amongst large boulders and there are no obvious threats. The entirety of its range and habitat is under legal protection for conservation, and although protection is less effective on the Mozambique side of the Trans-Frontier Conservation Area, human activity within the National Reserve does not impact upon this species or its habitat. It is therefore assessed as Least Concern (LC) as it is unthreatened as human activity does not increase significantly in the area. That said, if human activity were to increase within the TFCA, this species could quickly become globally threatened. In the longer term, climate change may pose a threat to this species hence regular monitoring is required to determine if there are indications of population decline or range shift.
In the national plant Red List of Mozambique, Izidine and Bandeira (2002) recorded this species as Data Deficient, but we now have sufficient information to confidently provide a full global assessment.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||Olea chimanimani is known only from the Chimanimani Mountains on the Zimbabwe-Mozambique border, with an extent of occurrence (EOO) of 85 km² and an area of occupancy (AOO) of 24 km² based on known occurrence data. The total area of Chimanimani sandstone/quartzite is approximately 380 km². Of this, the area that is covered by craggy quartzite and associated grassland, the habitat favoured by this species, is approximately 270 km²; this could be taken as the maximum possible AOO for this species. Wild 8009, recorded as being from Shurugwi on the Great Dyke of Zimbabwe, is excluded from this range as this is almost certainly either a misidentification or incorrect label data.|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
No quantitative population data are available for this species. It is known from 12 collections and has been recorded as scattered to locally common within its range.
|Current Population Trend:||Stable|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This shrub or small tree occurs among quartzite boulders and crags and among rocky upland bushland; growing at 1,270-1,720 m altitude.|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||No|
|Major Threat(s):||Although woody, this species does not appear to grow to a large enough size to be harvested for fuelwood by the mining communities in the Chimanimani highlands. The open woodlands on the Mozambique side of the Chimanimani massif are prone to increased frequency of burning by humans associated with the illegal artisanal mining activity within the National Reserve, but these fires do not impact significantly upon the rocky areas where this species is still frequent. Whether this species occurred more frequently in the open woodlands in the past under lower fire frequency is unclear but, based on current evidence, fire is not considered to be a threat. Olea chimanimani is therefore considered to be unthreatened at present.|
No specific conservation measures or management plan are in place for this species. It is recorded from the Chimanimani National Park in Zimbabwe and the Chimanimani National Reserve in Mozambique.
Dondeyne, S., Ndunguru, E., Rafael, P. and Bannerman, J. 2009. Artisanal mining in central Mozambique: Policy and environmental issues of concern. Resources Policy 34: 45-50.
Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T., Ballings, P. and Coates Palgrave, M. 2015. Flora of Zimbabwe. Available at: http://www.zimbabweflora.co.zw.
Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T., Ballings, P., Dondeyne, S. and Coates Palgrave, M. 2015. Flora of Mozambique. Available at: http://www.mozambiqueflora.com.
IUCN. 2017. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2017-1. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 27 April 2017).
Izidine, S. and Bandeira, S.O. 2002. Mozambique. In: J.S. Golding (ed.), Southern African Plant Red Data Lists, pp. 43-60. Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 14. SABONET, Pretoria.
Kupicha, F.K. 1983. Oleaceae. In: Flora Zambesiaca 7 (1). In: Launert, E. (ed.), Flora Zambesiaca, pp. 300-327. Flora Zambesiaca Managing Committee, London.
Mapaura, A. 2002. Endemic plant species of Zimbabwe. Kirkia 18(1): 117-148.
Timberlake, J.R., Wursten. B., Hadj-Hammou, J., Darbyshire, I., Mapaura, A. et al. . 2016. Botanical conservation across the Chimanimani Mountains. Unpublished report for the Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
|Citation:||Darbyshire, I., Timberlake, J., Mapaura, A., Chelene, I. & Hadj-Hammou, J. 2017. Olea chimanimani. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T32139A66151084.Downloaded on 17 February 2018.|