|Scientific Name:||Anaxyrus boreas|
|Species Authority:||(Baird & Girard, 1852)|
Bufo boreas Baird and Girard, 1852
|Taxonomic Source(s):||Frost, D.R. 2014. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6 (27 January 2014). New York, USA. Available at: http://research.amnh.org/herpetology/amphibia/index.html. (Accessed: 27 January 2014).|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group|
|Contributor(s):||García Aguayo, A., Muths, E., Hammerson, G.A. & Santos-Barrera, G.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Sharp, D., Rivera Téllez, E., Hobin, L. & Ramírez, R.|
Listed as Least Concern in view of the large extent of occurrence, large number of subpopulations and localities, large population size, and use of a wide range of habitats, including those that have been degraded of altered. Area of occupancy and population size probably are declining due to disease or other factors in portions of the range, but much of the disease-related decline occurred more than three generations ago, and the species remains common in many areas and probably is not declining at a rate close to 30 percent over 10 years or three generations. Thus it does not qualify for Near Threatened status. However, Anaxyrus boreas as currently defined may comprise multiple species, and one or more of these (e.g., in the Southern Rocky Mountains) may merit threatened status if further research results in a taxonomic split.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||This species occurs along the Pacific Coast of North America from southern Alaska (Wiedmer and Hodge 1996) to Baja California in Mexico, and ranges eastward through the Rocky Mountains in west-central Alberta, Montana, Wyoming, Utah (Ross et al. 1995) and Colorado (Hammerson 1999), to northern New Mexico (COSEWIC 2012). It is absent from most of the desert south-west (Stebbins 2003). Its elevational range extends from sea level to at least 3,640 meters.|
Native:Canada (Alberta, British Columbia, Northwest Territories, Yukon); Mexico (Baja California); United States (Alaska, California, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, Wyoming)
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The total adult population size of the species is unknown but surely exceeds 100,000. Although this species remains common throughout much of its range, many known sites have experienced population declines. The Rocky Mountain populations in Colorado and Wyoming underwent a drastic decline between the 1970s and 1990s (Corn et al. 1989; Hammerson 1989, 1992, 1999; Carey 1993; Muths et al. 2003). The species has also declined greatly in the Yosemite area of the Sierra Nevada, California (Drost and Fellers 1996), and has declined in Yellowstone National Park (Peterson et al. 1992) and Montana (Reichel and Flath 1995). Declines have been observed in southwestern British Columbia, but the species remains widespread within the northern portion of its range in the province (COSEWIC 2012). Overall, the recent and current rate of decline is unlikely to exceed or come close to 30 percent over 10 years or three generations.|
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This species is found in a wide variety of habitats including desert springs and streams, meadows, marshes, woodland, mountain wetlands and agricultural land. It is also known from around ponds, lakes, reservoirs, and slow-moving rivers and streams. It digs its own burrow in loose soil or uses those of small mammals, or shelters under logs or rocks. The eggs and larvae develop in shallow areas of ponds, lakes, or reservoirs, or in pools of slow-moving streams. The toads undertake seasonal migrations to and from breeding sites; newly metamorphosed young form large aggregations and migrate en masse to upland foraging areas.This species exhibits breeding site fidelity (COSEWIC 2012). Adult males in Alberta and a portion of northwestern Montana are unique in possessing a vocal sac and producing a loud advertisement call, while males from other parts of the range lack this structure and a true advertisement call (Pauly 2008).|
|Use and Trade:||This species is offered online in the USA as pet at prices around $40 USD, but this use does not constitute a significant threat.|
|Major Threat(s):||Die-offs in the southern Rockies have been associated with chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) infection (Muths et al. 2003) which is considered a threat elsewhere throughout the species' range. Eggs are highly susceptible to the pathogenic fungus Saprolegnia ferax, which is most probably introduced during fish stocking (Kiesecker and Blaustein 1997). In the Cascade Range of Oregon, persistent predation of adults by ravens during the toad breeding season appears to have contributed significantly to some population declines (Olson 1992). In Mexico its main threat is habitat degradation through agriculture and pollution of streams (G. Santos-Barrera pers. comm. Red List Assessment 2014). Road mortality during mass migrations is an important threat locally. Activities that destroy or modify habitat including energy production and mining, residential and commercial development, and pesticide application also threaten populations within portions of the range (COSEWIC 2012).|
|Conservation Actions:||This species occurs in many national parks, wildlife refuges, and wilderness areas where habitat destruction is not a major threat (but pathogen-related declines may still occur). In Mexico, this species occurs in San Pedro Martir National Park, and Valle de los Cirios Protected Area. In Canada, it is listed as Special Concern under the federal Species At Risk Act. The taxonomic status of the various regional populations of this species is in need of further study.|
1997. Amphibians in Decline: Canadian Studies of a Global Problem. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, Herpetological Conservation No. 1.
Behler, J.L. and King, F.W. 1979. The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Reptiles and Amphibians. New York.
Blackburn, L., Nanjappa, P. and Lannoo, M.J. 2001. An Atlas of the Distribution of U.S. Amphibians. Ball State University, Muncie, IN, USA.
Blaustein, A.R., Hoffman, P.D., Hokit, D.G., Kiesecker, J.M., Walls, S.C. and Hays, J.B. 1994. UV repair and resistance to solar UV-B in amphibian eggs: a link to population declines. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia: 1791-1795.
Campbell, J.B. and Degenhardt, W.G. 1971. Bufo boreas boreas in New Mexico. Herpetologica: 157-160.
Carey, C. 1993. Hypothesis concerning the causes of the disappearance of boreal toads from the mountains of Colorado. Conservation Biology: 355-362.
Corn, P.S. and Muths, E. 2002. Variable breeding phenology affects the exposure of amphibian embryos to ultraviolet radiation. Ecology: 2958-2963.
Corn, P.S. and Vertucci, F.A. 1992. Descriptive risk assessment of the effects of acidic deposition on Rocky Mountain amphibians. Journal of Herpetology: 361-369.
Corn, P.S., Stolzenburg, W. and Bury, R.B. 1989. Acid precipitation studies in Colorado and Wyoming: interim report of surveys of montane amphibians and water chemistry. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Biological Report: 56 pp.
COSEWIC. 2012. COSEWIC Assessment and Status Report on the Western Toad Anaxyrus boreas Non-calling population Calling population in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada, Ottawa.
Drost, C.A. and Fellers, G.M. 1996. Collapse of a regional frog fauna in the Yosemite area of the California Sierra Nevada, USA. Conservation Biology: 414-425.
Frost, D.R. 1985. Amphibian Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. Allen Press and the Association of Systematic Collections, Lawrence, Kansas.
Hailman, J.P. 1984. Bimodal nocturnal activity of the western toad (Bufo boreas) in relation to ambient temperature. Copeia: 283-290.
Hammerson, G.A. 1982. Amphibians and Reptiles in Colorado. Colorado Division of Wildlife, Denver, Denver.
Hammerson, G.A. 1989. A field survey of amphibians in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado, August 1989. Report to the Colorado Division of Wildlife and the Colorado Natural Areas Program.
Hammerson, G.A. 1992. Field surveys of amphibians in the mountains of Colorado, 1991. Report to the Colorado Division of Wildlife and Colorado Field Office of The Nature Conservancy.
Hammerson, G.A. 1999. Amphibians and reptiles in Colorado. Second edition. University Press of Colorado, Boulder.
Herreid, II, C.F. 1963. Range extension of Bufo boreas. Herpetologica: 218-219.
Hodge, R.P. 1976. Amphibians and Reptiles in Alaska, the Yukon and Northwest Territories. Alaska Northwest Publishing Company, Anchorage, Alaska.
IUCN. 2015. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015-4. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 19 November 2015).
Johnson, P.T.J., Lunde, K.B., Haight, R.W., Bowerman, J. and Blaustein, A.R. 2001. Ribeiroia ondatrae (Trematoda: Digenea) infection induces severe limb malformations in western toads (Bufo boreas). Canadian Journal of Zoology: 370-379.
Kiesecker, J.M. and Blaustein, A.R. 1997. Influences of egg laying behavior on pathogenic infection of amphibian eggs. Conservation Biology: 214-220.
Kiesecker, J.M., Blaustein, A.R. and Miller, C.L. 2001. Transfer of a pathogen from fish to amphibians. Conservation Biology: 1064-1070.
Livo, L.J. and Yeakley, D. 1997. Comparison of current with historical elevational range in the boreal toad, Bufo boreas. Herpetological Review: 143-144.
Muths, E. and Nanjappa, P. 2005. Western Toad. Bufo boreas Baird and Girard, 1852. In: Lannoo, M.J. (ed.), Status and Conservation of U.S. Amphibians. Volume 2: Species Accounts, pp. 64-83. University of California Press, Berkeley, California.
Muths, E., Corn, P.S., Pessier, A.P. and Green, D.E. 2003. Evidence for disease related amphibian decline in Colorado. Biological Conservation: 357-365.
NNHP. 1999. Nevada Natural Heritage Program Database. Carson City, Nevada.
Nussbaum, R.A., Brodie, Jr., E.D. and Storm, R.M. 1983. Amphibians and Reptiles of the Pacific Northwest. University Press of Idaho, Moscow, ID, USA.
Oliver, G.A. 1997. Inventory of sensitive species and ecosystems in Utah. Utah Division of Wildlife Resources, Salt Lake City, Utah.
Olson, D.H. 1989. Predation on breeding western toads (Bufo boreas). Copeia: 391-397.
Olson, D.H. 1992. Ecological susceptibility of high elevation Oregon anuran amphibians to population fluctuations. Abstract, 6th Annual Meeting of the Society for Conservation Biology: p. 102.
Pauly, G.B. 2008. Phylogenetic systematics, historical biogeography, and the evolution of vocalizations in Nearctic toad (Bufo). University of Texas, .
Peterson, C.R., Koch, E.D. and Corn, P.S. 1992. Monitoring amphibian populations in Yellowstone and Grand Teton National Parks. Unpublished Report to Univ. Wyo. Natl. Park Serv. Res. Center.
Reichel, J.D. and Flath, D. 1995. Identification of Montana's amphibians and reptiles. Montana Outdoors: 15-34.
Ross, D.A., Esque, T.C., Fridell, R.A. and Hovingh, P. 1995. Historical distribution, current status, and a range extension of Bufo boreas in Utah. Herpetological Review: 187-189.
Samallow, P.B. 1980. Selective mortality and reproduction in a natural population of Bufo boreas. Evolution: 18-39.
Smits, A.W. 1984. Activity patterns and thermal biology of the toad Bufo boreas halophilus. Copeia: 689-696.
Stebbins, R.C. 1985. A Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians. Second Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts.
Stebbins, R.C. 2003. A Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians. Third Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts.
Welsh, H.H., Jr., Hodgson, G.R. and Lind, A.J. 2005. Ecogeography of the herpetofauna of a northern Californian watershed: linking species patterns to landscape processes. Ecography: 521-536.
Wiedmer, M. and Hodge, R.P. 1996. Geographic distribution: Bufo boreas. Herpetological Review: 148.
|Citation:||IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group. 2015. Anaxyrus boreas. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T3179A53947725.Downloaded on 01 October 2016.|
|Feedback:||If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please provide us with feedback so that we can correct or extend the information provided|