|Scientific Name:||Vandijkophrynus amatolicus|
|Species Authority:||(Hewitt, 1925)|
Bufo amatolicus Hewitt, 1925
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Critically Endangered (Possibly Extinct) A2a ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||South African Frog Re-assessment Group (SA-FRoG) & IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group|
|Reviewer(s):||von May, R. & Angulo, A.|
|Contributor(s):||Channing, A., Turner, A., de Villiers, A., Harvey, J., Tarrant, J., Measey, J., Tolley, K., Minter, L., du Preez, L., Burger, M., Cunningham, M. & Davies, S.|
Listed as Critically Endangered due to a past population decline inferred to be close to 100%, as despite targeted searches, this species has not been seen at all from 1998 to 2009.
|Date last seen:||before 1998|
|Previously published Red List assessments:||
|Range Description:||This species is known only from the Winterberg and Amatola Mountains, between Katberg and Keiskammahoek, in Eastern Cape Province, South Africa, at 1,400-1,800 m asl.|
Possibly extinct:South Africa (Eastern Cape Province)
|Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:||18|
|Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):||Yes|
|Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:||1802|
|Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):||Yes|
|Number of Locations:||4|
|Lower elevation limit (metres):||1400|
|Upper elevation limit (metres):||1800|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||About ten visits to suitable sites over 11 years (1998-2009) have not turned up any frogs of this species and it is possible that this species is already extinct. Prior to the disappearance, it was known to congregate in large numbers to breed. The spatial distribution of this species is considered to be severely fragmented based on historical data as no one site holds >50% of individuals and the distances between subpopulations are considered to be too great for dispersal within one generation.|
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||It lays strings of eggs in shallow temporary pools and seepages in high-altitude moist grasslands, and is absent from forests and plantations. Tadpoles are free living and metamorphose before leaving the aquatic environment.|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Yes|
|Congregatory:||Congregatory (and dispersive)|
|Use and Trade:||
There are no reports of this species being utilized.
|Major Threat(s):||The main threats are loss of grassland through afforestation affecting the majority of the distribution, overgrazing, and fires; over the last 20 years about 20% of its habitat has been lost to plantations. Overgrazing and frequent fires may be responsible for disappearance from remaining appropriate sites in the last 11 years.|
|Conservation Actions:||The key research action required is to relocate this species and determine its phenology. There is a possibility that after 11 years without being seen, this species may be already extinct. Other priorities are to identify management units and assess perceived threats. If populations can be located, the population size should be determined and the site protected. If the specific requirements of this species can be determined, this may lead to restoration of appropriate habitat.|
Channing, A. 2001. Amphibians of Central and Southern Africa. Cornell University Press, Ithaca and London.
du Preez, L. and Carruthers, V. 2009. A complete guide to the frogs of southern Africa. Struik Nature, Cape Town.
IUCN. 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2010.3). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 2 September 2010).
Minter, L.R., Burger, M., Harrison, J.A., Braack, H.H., Bishop, P.J. and Knoepfer, D. 2004. Atlas and Red Data Book of the Frogs of South Africa, Lesotho and Swaziland. SI/MAB Series No. 9, Washington, D.C.
Passmore, N.I. and Carruthers, V.C. 1995. South African Frogs, 2nd Edition. Southern Book Publishers and Witwatersrand University Press, Johannesburg.
Tandy, M. and Keith, R. 1972. African Bufo. In: Blair, W.F. (ed.), Evolution in the genus Bufo, pp. 119-170. University of Texas Press, Austin, Texas.
Wager, V.A. 1986. Frogs of South Africa, 2nd edition. Delta Books, Craighall.
|Citation:||South African Frog Re-assessment Group (SA-FRoG) & IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group. 2010. Vandijkophrynus amatolicus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2010: e.T3176A9651632. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2010-3.RLTS.T3176A9651632.en . Downloaded on 09 October 2015.|
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