Incilius periglenes


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family

Scientific Name: Incilius periglenes
Species Authority: (Savage, 1967)
Common Name(s):
English Golden Toad, Monte Verde Toad, Monte Verde Golden Toad, Alajuela Toad, Orange Toad
Spanish Sapo Dorado
Bufo periglenes Savage, 1967

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Extinct ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-01-01
Assessor(s): Savage, J., Pounds, J. & Bolaños, F.
Reviewer(s): Stuart, S.N., Chanson, J.S., Cox, N.A. & Young, B.E.
Listed as Extinct because it has not been recorded since 1989, and extensive searches in the appropriate habitat, during the appropriate season within the known range, have failed to locate this species.
1996 Critically Endangered

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species was known only from the Reserva Biológica Monteverde, Costa Rica, at elevations of 1,500-1,620m asl.
Regionally extinct:
Costa Rica
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: Formerly a common species, no specimen has been seen since 1989. It last bred in normal numbers in 1987, and its breeding sites were well known. In 1988, only eight males and two females could be located. In 1989, a single male was found, and was the last record of the species. Extensive searches since this time have failed to produce any more records (as of August, 2007).

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: It lived in cloud and elfin forest, and was recorded breeding in temporary pools at the beginning of the rainy season.
Systems: Terrestrial; Freshwater

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Its restricted range, global warming, chytridiomycosis and airborne pollution probably contributed to this species' extinction.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Its entire range was protected by the Reserva Biológica Monteverde.
It is listed on CITES Appendix I (as Bufo periglenes).

Bibliography [top]

Crump, M.L. 1989. Life history consequences of feeding versus non-feeding in a facultatively non-feeding toad larva. Oecologia: 486-489.

Crump, M.L., Hensley, F.R. and Clark, K.L. 1992. Apparent decline of the golden toad: Underground or extinct? Copeia: 413-420.

IUCN. 2008. 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Available at: (Accessed: 5 October 2008).

Jacobson, S.K. and Vandenberg, J.J. 1991. Reproductive ecology of the endangered golden toad (Bufo periglenes). Journal of Herpetology: 321-327.

Pounds, J.A. and Crump, M.L. 1994. Amphibian declines and climate disturbance: The case of the golden toad and the harlequin frog. Conservation Biology: 72-85.

Pounds, J.A., Fogden, M.P.L. and Campbell, J.H. 1999. Biological response to climate change on a tropical mountain. Nature: 611-615.

Pounds, J.A., Fogden, M.P.L., Savage, J.M. and Gorman, G.C. 1997. Tests of null models for amphibian declines on a tropical mountain. Conservation Biology 11: 1307-1322.

Savage, J.M. 1966. An extraordinary new toad (Bufo) from Costa Rica. Revista de Biologia Tropical: 153-167.

Savage, J.M. 2002. The Amphibians and Reptiles of Costa Rica: A Herpetofauna between two Continents, between two Seas. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Citation: Savage, J., Pounds, J. & Bolaños, F. 2008. Incilius periglenes. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. <>. Downloaded on 29 August 2015.
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