|Scientific Name:||Eusideroxylon zwageri|
|Species Authority:||Teysm. & Binnend.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Vulnerable A1cd+2cd ver 2.3|
|Assessor(s):||Asian Regional Workshop (Conservation & Sustainable Management of Trees, Viet Nam, August 1996)|
|Range Description:||Belian or ironwood is one of the most renowned timbers of Borneo, the decline of which was first noted in 1955. Population reduction has been noted in the following regions: Kalimantan, Sumatra, Sabah, Sarawak and the Philippines.|
Native:Brunei Darussalam; Indonesia (Jawa, Kalimantan, Sumatera); Malaysia (Sabah, Sarawak); Philippines
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Generally a species of lowland primary forest.|
|Major Threat(s):||Overexploitation and shifting agriculture. Sabah and Kalimantan continue to export the timber. Regeneration in logged-over forests is limited.|
|Conservation Actions:||Indonesia has banned the export of belian and Sarawak has placed restrictions on export. So far the species is only planted on a small scale because the supply of seeds and seedlings is inadequate.|
Browne, F.G. 1955. Forest Trees of Sarawak and Brunei and their Products. Government Printing Office, Kuching.
Erfurth, T. and Rusche, H. 1976. The marketing of tropical wood. FAO, Rome.
Kessler, P.J.A., Sidiyasa, K., Zainal, A. and Zainal, A. 1995. Checklist of secondary forest trees in East and South Kalimantan, Indonesia.
Meijer, W. 1997. A conversation between Amy MacKinven and Dr W. Meijer regarding possibly extinct trees of Sabah.
Oldfield, S., Lusty, C. and MacKinven, A. (compilers). 1998. The World List of Threatened Trees. World Conservation Press, Cambridge, UK.
Partomihardjo, T. 1987. The ulin wood which is threatened to extinction. Duta Rimba 87(13): 10-15.
Peluso, N.L. 1992. The ironwood problem: (Mis) management and development of an extractive rainforest product. Conservation Biology 6(2): 210-219.
Soerianegara, I. and Lemmens, R.H.M.J. (eds) 1993. Plant Resources of South-East Asia 5(1). Timber trees: major commercial timbers. Pudoc Scientific Publishers, Wageningen.
Suselo, T.B. 1987. Autecology of E. zwageri T. & B. (Lauraceae) as applied to forest regeneration. BIOTROP, Bogor.
Tantra, G.M. 1983. Erosi plasma nutfah nabati dan Masalah Pelestariannya. Jurnal Litbang Pertanian 2(1): 1-5.
|Citation:||Asian Regional Workshop (Conservation & Sustainable Management of Trees, Viet Nam, August 1996) 1998. Eusideroxylon zwageri. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 20 December 2014.|
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