Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Magnoliopsida Laurales Lauraceae

Scientific Name: Eusideroxylon zwageri
Species Authority: Teysm. & Binnend.
Common Name(s):
English Billian, Borneo Ironwood
French Bois De Fer

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable A1cd+2cd ver 2.3
Year Published: 1998
Date Assessed: 1998-01-01
Needs updating
Assessor(s): Asian Regional Workshop (Conservation & Sustainable Management of Trees, Viet Nam, August 1996)
Previously published Red List assessments:
1998 Vulnerable (V)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Belian or ironwood is one of the most renowned timbers of Borneo, the decline of which was first noted in 1955. Population reduction has been noted in the following regions: Kalimantan, Sumatra, Sabah, Sarawak and the Philippines.
Countries occurrence:
Brunei Darussalam; Indonesia (Jawa, Kalimantan, Sumatera); Malaysia (Sabah, Sarawak); Philippines
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: Generally a species of lowland primary forest.
Systems: Terrestrial

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Overexploitation and shifting agriculture. Sabah and Kalimantan continue to export the timber. Regeneration in logged-over forests is limited.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Indonesia has banned the export of belian and Sarawak has placed restrictions on export. So far the species is only planted on a small scale because the supply of seeds and seedlings is inadequate.

Classifications [top]

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.1. Housing & urban areas
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.1. Shifting agriculture
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.5. Motivation Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

Bibliography [top]

Browne, F.G. 1955. Forest Trees of Sarawak and Brunei and their Products. Government Printing Office, Kuching.

Erfurth, T. and Rusche, H. 1976. The marketing of tropical wood. FAO, Rome.

Kessler, P.J.A., Sidiyasa, K., Zainal, A. and Zainal, A. 1995. Checklist of secondary forest trees in East and South Kalimantan, Indonesia.

Meijer, W. 1997. A conversation between Amy MacKinven and Dr W. Meijer regarding possibly extinct trees of Sabah.

Oldfield, S., Lusty, C. and MacKinven, A. (compilers). 1998. The World List of Threatened Trees. World Conservation Press, Cambridge, UK.

Partomihardjo, T. 1987. The ulin wood which is threatened to extinction. Duta Rimba 87(13): 10-15.

Peluso, N.L. 1992. The ironwood problem: (Mis) management and development of an extractive rainforest product. Conservation Biology 6(2): 210-219.

Soerianegara, I. and Lemmens, R.H.M.J. (eds) 1993. Plant Resources of South-East Asia 5(1). Timber trees: major commercial timbers. Pudoc Scientific Publishers, Wageningen.

Suselo, T.B. 1987. Autecology of E. zwageri T. & B. (Lauraceae) as applied to forest regeneration. BIOTROP, Bogor.

Tantra, G.M. 1983. Erosi plasma nutfah nabati dan Masalah Pelestariannya. Jurnal Litbang Pertanian 2(1): 1-5.

Citation: Asian Regional Workshop (Conservation & Sustainable Management of Trees, Viet Nam, August 1996). 1998. Eusideroxylon zwageri. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 1998: e.T31316A9624725. . Downloaded on 09 October 2015.
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