|Scientific Name:||Cunninghamia konishii|
|Taxonomic Notes:||Was formerly included under the family Taxodiaceae. The Taxodiaceae is now merged with Cupressaceae (see Farjon 2001).
The species is sometimes known as a variety or form of C. lanceolata.
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Endangered A2cd; B2ab(ii,iii,v) ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Thomas, P. & Yang, Y.|
|Reviewer(s):||Farjon, A. & Christian, T.|
Cunninghamia konishii was previously assessed by the Conifer Specialist Group for the IUCN Red List as Vulnerable under criterion A1 using the Version 2.3 categories and criteria (Conifer Specialist Group 2000). This assessment was based primarily on information from Taiwan as there was a shortage of data concerning distribution and exploitation available for Viet Nam or Lao PDR. Since then more information has become available.
The estimated extent of occurrence, calculated as the sum of the two separate areas is about 11,000 km2, within the threshold for Vulnerable. However, the area of occupancy is highly likely to be less than 500 km2, within the threshold for Endangered. Subpopulations are severely fragmented due to past exploitation and there is a continuing decline in Lao PDR. In Viet Nam there has been an estimated decline of at least 50% (Nguyen et al. 2004) and there is likely to have been a similar, if not greater decline, in Lao PDR. The total past decline is suspected to have been more than 50% as together, Lao PDR and Viet Nam represent the greater proportion of the global population. On this basis an assessment of Endangered under the criteria A2cd and B2ab(ii,iii,v) is warranted.
|Range Description:||This distribution of this species includes Taiwan (N-central); mainland China (Fujian - there is some debate about this record which may be of cultivated plants, but is cited in the Flora of China); Lao PDR (Houaphan Province); Viet Nam (Thanh Hoa, Nghe An). The combined extent of occurrence is estimated to be about 11,000 km2. This is based on the sum of the estimated EOOs in Taiwan and the areas within Lao PDR and Viet Nam (6,800 km2), and excluding the Fujian record (4,250 km2). The combined area of occupancy is uncertain but is very likely to be less than 500 km2.|
Native:China (Fujian); Lao People's Democratic Republic; Taiwan, Province of China; Viet Nam
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The remaining stands are small and severely fragmented. Subpopulations in Taiwan are stable but are not expanding. Vietnamese stands show poor regeneration. Continued exploitation in Lao PDR and recent exploitation in Viet Nam is inferred to be sufficient to result in an overall decline in the number of mature individuals.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
In Taiwan this species occurs in mixed coniferous or conifer-broad-leaved forest in the cool temperate coniferous forest belt, with Chamaecyparis formosensis, C. obtusa var. formosana, Calocedrus formosana, Pinus taiwanensis, Pseudotsuga sinensis, Taiwania cryptomerioides, Acer morrisonense, A. kawakamii, Schima superba, Photinia davidiana, Rhododendron formosanum, Pasania sp., and the alpine bamboo Yushania niitakayamensis. The altitudinal range is from (600?)960 m to 2,200 m a.s.l. Soils are relatively deep and well-drained loams or loamy sand. The climate is cool, very moist, with cloud-cover resulting in fog and rain much of the year and very high precipitation exceeding 4000 mm per year.
In Lao PDR and Viet Nam this species has an altitudinal range from 960 – 2,000 m a.s.l.. It occurs in dense evergreen subtropical forest on granite derived soils. The climate is a monsoon tropical climate associated with mountains, mean annual temperature 16-22 °C with rainfall above 1500 mm. Associated conifer species include Fokienia hodginsii, Amentotaxus spp and Podocarpus spp.
|Use and Trade:||This is a valuable timber species, which is exploited for construction materials.|
|Major Threat(s):||Many stands have been destroyed by felling and replaced with commercial plantations in Taiwan. In those cases where Cunninghamia has been replanted, use has mostly been made of C. lanceolata, which shows faster growth than. C. konishii. This poses another threat: genetic contamination. In Viet Nam it was heavily exploited in the recent past and is still used locally for house construction as its wood is resistant to rot and termites and is easily worked. In Lao PDR it is still being heavily exploited.|
|Conservation Actions:||In Taiwan there are protected populations in Yushan National Park and Taroko National Park. Remnant stands are recorded from Pu Mat, Pu Hoat and Xuan Lien nature reserves in Viet Nam. It has not yet been recorded from any protected areas within Lao PDR.|
Chinh, N.N., Chung, C.T., Can, V.V., Dung, N.X., Dung, V.V., Dao, N.K., Hop, T., Oanh, T.T., Quynh, N.B. and Thin, N.N. 1996. Vietnam forest trees. Forest Inventory and Planning Institute, Agricultural Publishing House, Hanoi, Vietnam.
Conifer Specialist Group. 2000. Cunninghamia konishii. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 24 April).
IUCN. 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2013.1). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 12 June 2013).
Lu, S.Y. and Pan, F.J. 1996. Rare and Endangered Plants in Taiwan I.
Luu, N.D.T. and Thomas, P.I. 2004. Cay La Kim Vietnam / Conifers of Vietnam. Darwin Initiative. Available: http://www.ceh.ac.uk/sections/bm/conifer_manual.html (18 July 2007).
Nguyen, T.H., Phan, K.L., Nguyen, D.T.L.,Thomas, P.I., Farjon, A., Averyanov, L. and Regalado Jr., J. 2004. Vietnam Conifers: Conservation Status Review 2004. Fauna & Flora International, Vietnam, Hanoi.
Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. and Khou, E. 2007. New records of Conifers in Cambodia and Laos. Edinburgh Journal of Botany 64(1): 37-44.
|Citation:||Thomas, P. & Yang, Y. 2013. Cunninghamia konishii. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 24 October 2014.|
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