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Quercus hintonii 

Scope: Global
Language: English
Status_ne_offStatus_dd_offStatus_lc_offStatus_nt_offStatus_vu_offStatus_en_onStatus_cr_offStatus_ew_offStatus_ex_off

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Magnoliopsida Fagales Fagaceae

Scientific Name: Quercus hintonii E.F.Warb.
Common Name(s):
Spanish Encino prieto
Taxonomic Source(s): Trehane, P. 2007-2018. The Oak Names Checklist. Available at: http://oaknames.org/search/goodnames.asp. (Accessed: 2 February 2016).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered B1ab(i,ii,iii)+2ab(i,ii,iii) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2018
Date Assessed: 2017-10-30
Assessor(s): Jerome, D.
Reviewer(s): Rivers, M.C. & Samain, M.-S.
Contributor(s): Coombes, A.
Justification:

Quercus hintonii is confined to three main localities in Mexico State: between Temascaltepec and Tejupilco, Sierra de Goleta and Sierra de Nanchititla. This restricted geographic range can be seen in both the extent of occurrence (EOO) and the area of occupancy (AOO) which fall within the thresholds to categorize Q. hintonii as Endangered. It grows on steep mountain slopes at 1,400–2,000 m in mixed dry pine-oak forest. Much of the area is in the process of conversion into avocado plantations and human settlements. There has also been a huge reduction in forest area due to agricultural expansion and logging. These threats are pervasive throughout Q. hintonii's range leading to a low number of locations for the species. A previously recorded locality in neighboring Michoacán no longer exists indicating Q. hintonii's subpopulations are declining. Due to its restricted range. limited number of locations, and continuing threats Q. hintonii is categorized as Endangered.

Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:

Quercus hintonii is endemic to the Balsas basin region. It is found in the oak and pine-oak forest in Mexico State and on the steep slopes of the Sierra la Goleta, Nanchititla and in the mountains around Tejupilco and Temascaltepec, each one of these areas can be considered a separate location. It is found between 1,400 and 2,000 m (Rodríguez and Coombes 2000).  Aguilar and Romero (1995) included the municipality of Villa Madero, Michoacán in their distribution of Q. hintonii; however, when this region was revisited the species could not be found (Romero Rangel 2000).

Countries occurrence:
Native:
Mexico (México State)
Additional data:
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:224Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):Yes
Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:2566
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):Yes
Number of Locations:1-3
Lower elevation limit (metres):1400
Upper elevation limit (metres):2000
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:A study of Quercus hintonii's population in 2000 used survey data and information on land use to map Q. hintonii's distribution and found it covered an area of 18,633 ha (186.33 km2) (Rodríguez and Coombes 2000), although there was no study into the density of Q. hintonii in that area. Having been previously found in Michoacán, it can be assumed that the population size, as well as the extent of occurrence and area of occupancy, have declined as it is now only found in Mexico state. However it is possible that the original occurrences in Michoacán were misidentified.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Quercus hintonii is a deciduous trees, which grows up to 15 m high; with a trunk of 30-50 cm (Romero Rangel 2000). It grows in oak and pine oak forest on igneous and metamorphic rock. It is found on very steep slopes and on mountain summits in temperate and sub humid climate. Quercus hintonii often associates with Q. magnoliifolia, Pinus oocarpa, P. pringlei, Clethra mexicana and Juniperus flaccida (Aguilar and Romero 1995).
Systems:Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: Quercus hintonii is used locally for the manufacture of tool handles, beams, fence posts, and rustic benches, as well as for firewood (Aguilar and Romero 1995).

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Disturbance of Quercus hintonii forest disturbance found a very strong relationship between developing human population size and the amount of disturbance (Rodríguez and Coombes 2000). Much of the area is in the process of conversion into avocado plantations and human settlements. There has also been a huge reduction in forest area due to agricultural expansion and logging (A. Coombes pers. comm. 2017). There is clearing of oak forest, to open areas for cattle use (grassland), agricultural (maize), creation of roads and for human settlements. Currently, wood is being extracted from these forests, commercially baking bread and cooking. The forest and soil have been damaged a lot because they perform cultural practices such as that known as the "tumba, rosa y quema", which refers to the demolition of trees and the action of removing the weeds, using machete and finally burning the organic remains, this action sometimes causes fires, which cannot always be controlled, thus increasing the deterioration of the forest (Reyes Jaramillo 2006).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Quercus hintonii is grown in three botanic gardens in Mexico as well in overseas collections. Although this species shows a good germination rate, its adaptation to cultivated conditions has been of limited success so more work on cultivation conditions is being done at the Botanic Garden in the University of Puebla (Oldfield and Eastwood 2007).

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.5. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:Yes
3. Species management -> 3.4. Ex-situ conservation -> 3.4.1. Captive breeding/artificial propagation
4. Education & awareness -> 4.1. Formal education
4. Education & awareness -> 4.3. Awareness & communications

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Occur in at least one PA:Unknown
In-Place Species Management
  Subject to ex-situ conservation:Yes
In-Place Education
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.1. Housing & urban areas
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Unknown ♦ severity:Unknown ⇒ Impact score:Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.2. Species disturbance

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.2. Small-holder farming
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Unknown ♦ severity:Unknown ⇒ Impact score:Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.2. Species disturbance

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.3. Livestock farming & ranching -> 2.3.2. Small-holder grazing, ranching or farming
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Unknown ♦ severity:Unknown ⇒ Impact score:Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.2. Species disturbance

4. Transportation & service corridors -> 4.1. Roads & railroads
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Unknown ♦ severity:Unknown ⇒ Impact score:Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.2. Species disturbance

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.1. Intentional use: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest]
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Unknown ♦ severity:Unknown ⇒ Impact score:Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.2. Species disturbance

7. Natural system modifications -> 7.1. Fire & fire suppression -> 7.1.1. Increase in fire frequency/intensity
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Unknown ♦ severity:Unknown ⇒ Impact score:Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.2. Species disturbance

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends

Bibliography [top]

Aguilar Enríquez, Ma. de L. and Romero Rangel, S. 1995. Estudio taxonómico de cuatro especies de encino (Quercus) descritas por Warburg . Acta Botánica Mexicana 31: 63-71.

IUCN. 2018. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2018-1. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 28 June 2018).

Oldfield, S. and Eastwood, A. 2007. The Red List of Oaks. Fauna & Flora International, Cambridge, UK.

Reyes, J.I. 2006. Quercus hintonii Warb.: especie endemica del encinar del SW del Estado de Mexico. Contactos 60: 64-72.

Rodríguez-Acosta , M. and Coombes, A. 2000. Estrategia De Conservation de Quercus hintonii. Fauna & Flora International. Cambridge, UK.

Romero Rangel, S., Rojas Zenteno, C. and Almonte Díaz, C. 2000. Quercus hintonii Warb. (Fagaceae) encino endémico de la depresión del Balsas, México y su propagación. Polibotánica 11: 121-127.


Citation: Jerome, D. 2018. Quercus hintonii. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018: e.T30732A2795593. . Downloaded on 24 September 2018.
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