Breviceps gibbosus 

Scope: Global
Language: English
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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Anura Brevicipitidae

Scientific Name: Breviceps gibbosus (Linnaeus, 1758)
Common Name(s):
English Cape Rain Frog, Giant Rain Frog
Synonym(s):
Rana gibbosa Linnaeus, 1758
Taxonomic Source(s): Frost, D.R. 2016. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0 (31 March 2016). New York, USA. Available at: http://research.amnh.org/herpetology/amphibia/index.html.
Taxonomic Notes: This species, originally named Rana gibbosa, was the first African frog species to be entered into the Linnean system of nomenclature in 1758.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Near Threatened ver 3.1
Year Published: 2017
Date Assessed: 2016-07-27
Assessor(s): IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group, South African Frog Re-assessment Group (SA-FRoG)
Reviewer(s): Luedtke, J.
Contributor(s): Channing, A., Rebelo, A., Turner, A.A., de Villiers, A., Becker, F., Harvey, J., Tarrant, J., Measey, G.J., Tolley, K., Minter, L., du Preez, L., Burger, M., Cunningham, M.J., Baptista, N., Hopkins, R., Davies, S., Conradie, W. & Chapeta, Y.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Rebelo, A., Garollo, E., Measey, G.J., Neam, K.
Justification:
Listed as Near Threatened because, although it has an extent of occurrence (EOO) of 9,488 km2 and a continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO) and the extent and quality of its habitat, it is relatively common, its population is not considered to be severely fragmented and it occurs at more than 10 locations.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is endemic to the southwestern Western Cape Province of South Africa, where it ranges from the central Cape Peninsula in the south, to west of Citrusdal in the north. There is a distribution gap in the Swartland. It ranges from 10 to 600 m Asl. It occurs in more than 10 threat-defined locations and its EOO is 9,488 km2.
Countries occurrence:
Native:
South Africa (Western Cape)
Additional data:
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:1753
Lower elevation limit (metres):10
Upper elevation limit (metres):600
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:It can be relatively common in parts of its range. Its population is not considered to be severely fragmented (as less than half of the individuals can be found in isolated patches).
Current Population Trend:Unknown
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No
All individuals in one subpopulation:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:It is a burrowing frog of renosterveld fynbos heathland. It also occurs in disturbed habitats, such as pine plantations and gardens, and there is ongoing decline in its habitat over much of its range. It breeds by development occurring directly in subterranean nests with up to 22 froglets recorded for this species (Minter et al. 2004), and is not associated with water-bodies.
Systems:Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes
Movement patterns:Not a Migrant

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade:

There are no records of this species being utilized.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Although it is somewhat adaptable, its habitat has been severely reduced and fragmented by agricultural expansion in much of its range and urban development in parts of its range. It is possibly impacted by the use of pesticides, and herbicides, and it does not occur in agricultural land that is ploughed. This might account for the apparent absence of the species from most renosterveld fragments in the Swartland, north of Cape Town, but more systematic surveys are required. In garden areas Hadeda ibis (Bostrychia hagedash) were seen preying on individuals of this species.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions
No conservation actions are currently prioritised for this species. It occurs in several protected areas, including Cape Peninsula National Park, Helderberg Nature Reserve, and Paarl Mountain Nature Reserve. There is no area-based plan specific to this species, but populations in protected areas benefit from the protected area management plan concerned.

Research Needed
Studies on its population size, distribution and trends, life history and ecology, and threats are needed.

Classifications [top]

3. Shrubland -> 3.8. Shrubland - Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:Yes
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.2. Artificial/Terrestrial - Pastureland
suitability:Suitable season:resident 
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.3. Artificial/Terrestrial - Plantations
suitability:Suitable season:resident 
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.4. Artificial/Terrestrial - Rural Gardens
suitability:Suitable season:resident 
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.5. Artificial/Terrestrial - Urban Areas
suitability:Marginal season:resident 

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:No
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
  Area based regional management plan:Yes
In-Place Species Management
  Subject to ex-situ conservation:No
In-Place Education
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.1. Housing & urban areas
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Minority (<50%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score:Low Impact: 5 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.2. Commercial & industrial areas
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Minority (<50%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score:Low Impact: 5 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.3. Agro-industry farming
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Majority (50-90%) ♦ severity:Unknown ⇒ Impact score:Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

9. Pollution -> 9.3. Agricultural & forestry effluents -> 9.3.4. Type Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Minority (<50%) ♦ severity:Unknown ⇒ Impact score:Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats

Bibliography [top]

Channing, A. 2001. Amphibians of Central and Southern Africa. Cornell University Press, Ithaca and London.

du Preez, L. and Carruthers, V. 2009. A Complete Guide to the Frogs of Southern Africa. Struik Nature, Cape Town.

IUCN. 2017. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2017-2. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 14 September 2017).

Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Laurentii Salvii, Stockholm.

McLachlan, A. 1978. South African Red Data Book - Reptiles and Amphibians. South African National Scientific Programmes Report.

Minter, L.R., Burger, M., Harrison, J.A., Braack, H.H., Bishop, P.J. and Knoepfer, D. 2004. Atlas and Red Data Book of the Frogs of South Africa, Lesotho and Swaziland. SI/MAB Series No. 9, Washington, D.C.


Citation: IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group, South African Frog Re-assessment Group (SA-FRoG). 2017. Breviceps gibbosus. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T3069A77162627. . Downloaded on 20 October 2017.
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