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Adansonia grandidieri 

Scope: Global
Status_ne_offStatus_dd_offStatus_lc_offStatus_nt_offStatus_vu_offStatus_en_onStatus_cr_offStatus_ew_offStatus_ex_off

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Magnoliopsida Malvales Bombacaceae

Scientific Name: Adansonia grandidieri
Species Authority: Baillon
Taxonomic Notes: Adansonia grandidieri Baillon (1893)

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered A4c ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2016-07-07
Assessor(s): Ravaomanalina, H. & Razafimanahaka, J.
Reviewer(s): Rakouth, B. & Goettsch, B.
Contributor(s): Vieilledent, G.
Justification:
Even though recent studies show this species has a larger range than previously thought, Andansonia grandidieri is listed as Endangered based on an inferred (for the past) and projected (for the future) population reduction of at least 50% using past and future habitat loss over a three-generation time period (1953 to 2116). Three generations is estimated to be 1,050 to 3,000 years (using generation length of other Adansonia species), but when projecting population reduction into the future, three generations is capped at 100 years from now i.e. the year 2116. Deforestation in the area where the species occurs has been intense since 1953 and this is likely to continue. In addition, the species has a naturally very low regeneration rate and there are many threats affecting the regeneration of the species especially grazing of seedlings by livestock, consumption of fruit by people and seed collection for use in the production of cosmetics.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:

Adansonia grandidieri is endemic to Madagascar. It was thought that the distribution of this species was very restricted, especially in the South West region of Madagascar, and that the presence of individuals was limited to the district of Befandriana South and Tsiribihina River (Baum et al. 1998), as this large tree had been collected from five locations distributed between Lac Ihotry, near Morombe, and Bereboka, north of Morondava.  However, a recent study based on satellite image identification conducted by Vieilledent et al. (2013) showed that A. grandidieri is present in a larger area (around 26,232 km2) and it is located along the Mangoky River and in the west part of the Menabe region covering about 4.5% of the area of Madagascar (Vieilledent et al. 2013).

Countries occurrence:
Native:
Madagascar
Additional data:
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:90
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):Yes
Upper elevation limit (metres):50
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:

According to a recent study by Madagasikara Voakajy this species occurs in three districts of Menabe Region (Mahabo, Manja and Morondava). The population size is different in the five known subpopulations, being lower in the northern part of this region (Andriafidison et al. in prep.).

A recent study shows that Adansonia grandidieri is represented by more than an estimated one million individuals (Vieilledent et al. 2013).

Population density in Andranomena is 37 individuals/ha in the Andranomena Special Reserve and 3 individuals/ha outside the protected area (Ranjevasoa 2003). In Bekonazy Morondava, the population density is 1.24 individuals/ha in the protected site and 0.98 individuals/ha in unprotected site (FANAMBY pers. comm.).

Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:1000000

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:It probably occurred in dry deciduous forest, frequently close to bodies of water, but mature trees are now largely found in degraded agricultural lands where regeneration is poor.

Adansonia grandidieri
is adapted to very dry areas with low annual precipitation, high mean annual temperature, high precipitation and temperature seasonality. Geology was not a significant factor explaining the distribution of A. grandidieri (Vieilledent et al. 2013).

Nocturnal lemurs are the main pollinators of A. grandidieri (Wickens and Lowe 2008). However, the Madagascar straw-coloured fruit bats, Eidolon dupreanum and Rousettus madagascariensis may also pollinate the flowers of the species (Andriafidison et al. 2006).

Flower biology and phenology of this species plays an important role in attraction and behaviour of pollinators (Rasoamanana et al. 2015).
Systems:Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes
Generation Length (years):350-1000

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade:

The fruit of Adamsonia grandidieri are consumed locally and are considered to have the best taste among all baobab fruits, they are also used to make juice (Baum 1995). The fruit pulp has high energetic value, over 300 kcals for 100 g fresh matter (Rakotonindrainy 2008). The pulp is rich in protein, calcium and phosphorous (Diop et al. 2005, Wickens and Lowe 2008, De Caluwé et al. 2009). The seeds are rich in lipids (Gaydou et al. 1983, Andrianaivo-Rafehivola et al. 2012) and are used by the population for cooking (Baum 1995). Bark is used in traditional medicine to treat hypocalcemia (Sandratriniaina 2015). The bark fibres, locally called hafotse are used as ropes for fixing walls and roofs of houses and for making traditional Sakalava and Mikea boxes, baskets and mats (Baum 1996, Wickens and Lowe 2008).

The species is also used on a larger scale for production of cosmetics; oil is extracted from seeds collected by Renala Naturals, which is a social enterprise that establishes sustainable supply chains in Madagascar.

With one exception, all records of use are for domestic consumption either locally or regionally. However, recent information sent to the CITES Secretariat in light of the proposal to include A. grandidieri in Appendix II at the 17th Conference of the Parties of CITES indicated that 4,000 kg were reportedly exported from Madagascar to France by Renala Naturals in 2014 (the seed was collected under a permit issued by the forestry department). It remains to be seen whether this is a once-off export or the start of regular and increasing international trade in seed or derivatives of this species.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): There are various threats causing habitat degradation for this species. The expansion of human settlements and agriculture are direct threats to Adansonia grandidieri. Water pollution caused by the sugar industry Sucoma could be disturbing the physiology of this tree, especially in the subpopulation situated in the northern part of the Menabe Region (Morondava district). Traditional agricultural techniques such as the use of fire and slash and burn (Tavy) are considered major threats. Frequent and repeated fires harm young plants of this species. Grazing by livestock is also a threat as cattle and goats graze and trample the young plants, thus impacting the already naturally low recruitment. Excessive bark extraction, increased use of fire and conversion of forest into agricultural lands pose the greatest threats. However, this species appears to be tolerant of some forest disturbance.

In its area of occurrence, ecological studies indicate that the population is old and has a very low rate of natural regeneration (Wilson 1988, Razanameharizaka 2009).

The increased and possibly unsustainable exploitation of this species may be a threat affecting future recruitment. There are currently no laws controlling this exploitation. Adansonia grandidieri is the most widely used baobab species in the Menabe region (Raveloson et al. 2014).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species occurs within Andranomena Special Reserve and Kirindy Mitea and Menabe National Parks. The species has been proposed for inclusion in CITES Appendix II.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.5. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
suitability:Suitable  
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.1. Artificial/Terrestrial - Arable Land
suitability:Marginal  
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
3. Species management -> 3.1. Species management -> 3.1.1. Harvest management
3. Species management -> 3.1. Species management -> 3.1.2. Trade management
4. Education & awareness -> 4.3. Awareness & communications
5. Law & policy -> 5.1. Legislation -> 5.1.2. National level

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
  Area based regional management plan:Yes
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.1. Housing & urban areas
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.2. Commercial & industrial areas
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.1. Shifting agriculture
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.2. Small-holder farming
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.3. Livestock farming & ranching -> 2.3.1. Nomadic grazing
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.2. Species disturbance
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.3. Indirect species effects -> 2.3.7. Reduced reproductive success

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.3. Livestock farming & ranching -> 2.3.4. Scale Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.2. Species disturbance
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.3. Indirect species effects -> 2.3.7. Reduced reproductive success

5. Biological resource use -> 5.2. Gathering terrestrial plants -> 5.2.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.3. Indirect species effects -> 2.3.7. Reduced reproductive success

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.1. Intentional use: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest]
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.2. Species disturbance

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.2. Intentional use: (large scale) [harvest]
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

7. Natural system modifications -> 7.1. Fire & fire suppression -> 7.1.1. Increase in fire frequency/intensity
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

9. Pollution -> 9.3. Agricultural & forestry effluents -> 9.3.4. Type Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.2. Species disturbance

1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
2. Conservation Planning -> 2.1. Species Action/Recovery Plan
2. Conservation Planning -> 2.2. Area-based Management Plan
2. Conservation Planning -> 2.3. Harvest & Trade Management Plan
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends
3. Monitoring -> 3.2. Harvest level trends
3. Monitoring -> 3.3. Trade trends
3. Monitoring -> 3.4. Habitat trends

Bibliography [top]

Andriafidison, D., Andrianaivoarivelo, R.A., Jenkins, R.K.B., Ramilijaona, O., Razanahoera, M., MacKinnon, J. and Racey, P.A. 2006. Nectarivory by endemic Malagasy fruit bats in the dry season. Biotropica 38: 85-90.

Andrianaivo - Rafehivola, A.A., Ravaomanalina, B.H. and Razanameharizaka. J.H.N. 2013. Toxicité de l’huile et des tourteaux de graines de baobab: cas d’ Adansonia grandidieri. Académie Malgache.

Baum, D. 1995. A systematic revision of Adansonia (Bombacaceae). Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 82: 440-470.

Baum, D.A. 1996. The ecology and conservation of the Baobabs of Madagascar. In: J.U. Ganzhorn and J.P. Sorg (eds), Ecology and economy of a tropical Dry forest in Madagascar, pp. 311-327. E. Goltze, Göttingen.

Baum, D.A., Small, R.L. and Wendel, J.F. 1998. Biogeography and floral evolution of baobabs (Adansonia Bombacaceae) as inferred from multiple data sets. Systematic Biology 47: 181–207.

de Caluwé, E., de Smedt, S., Assogbadjo, A.E., Samson, R., Sinsin, B. and van Damme, P. 2009. Ethnic differences in use value and use patterns of baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) in northern Benin. African Journal of Ecology 47(03): 433-440.

Diop, G.A., Sakho, M., Dornier, M., Cisse, M. and Reynes, M. 2005. Le baobab africain (Adansonia digitata L.): principales caractéristiques et utilisations. Fruits 61(01): 55-69.

Gaydou, E.M., Bianchini, J.P. and Ratovohery, J.V. 1983. Triterpene alcohols, methyl sterols, sterols, and fatty acids in five malagasy legume seed oils. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 31(04): 833-836.

IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-2. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 04 September 2016).

Jenkins, M.D. (ed.) 1987. Madagascar. An environmental profile. IUCN/UNEP/WWF, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Rakotonindrainy, N.A. 2008. Valorisation des fruits de deux espèces de baobab: Adansonia grandidieri et Adansonia za récoltés dans les régions de Boeny et Menabe. Université d’Antananarivo.

Randjevasoa, B.N. 2003. Etudes de quelques espèces menacées (Adansonia grandidieri Baill., A. rubrostipa Jumm. & Perrier; A. za Baill., Hazomalania voyronii Capuron) de la forêt classée de Kirindy Nord en vue de leur conservation. Faculté des Sciences, Université d’Antananarivo.

Rasoamanana, E.N., Razanamaro, O., Ramavovololona, P., Ramamonjisoa,R.Z., Verdeil, J.L., Danthu, P. and Suárez-Cervera, M. 2015. Pollen wall ultrastructure of the genus Adansonia L. species. Plant Systematics and Evolution 301(2): 541-554.

Raveloson, C.O., Andriafidison, D., Razafimanahaka, J.H., Rabesihanaka, S. and Jenkins, R.K.B. 2014. Les baobabs de Madagascar : quel cadre réglementaire pour leur conservation ? Madagascar Conservation & Developpement 9(1): 31-35.

Razanameharizaka, J.H.N. 2009. Régénération, démographie, physiologie de la graine et des plantules du genre Adansonia à Madagascar. Faculté des Sciences, Université d’Antananarivo.

Sandratriniaina, A.N. 2015. Anatomie et régé né ration d’écorce des baobabs citernes du plateau Mahafaly au Sud Ouest de Madagascar. Faculté des Sciences, Université d’Antananarivo.

Vieilledent, G., Cornu, C. , Sanchez, A.C., Leong Pock-Tsy, J.-M., and Danthu, P. 2013. Vulnerability of baobab species to climate change and effectiveness of the protected area network in Madagascar: Towards new conservation priorities. Biological conservation 166: 11-22.

Wickens, G.E. and Lowe, P. 2008. The Baobabs: Pachycauls of Africa Madagascar and Australia. Springer Verlag, Berlin.

Wilson, R.T. 1988. Vital statistics of the baobab (Adansonia digitata). African Journal of Ecology 26(3): 197-206.


Citation: Ravaomanalina, H. & Razafimanahaka, J. 2016. Adansonia grandidieri. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T30388A64007143. . Downloaded on 26 September 2016.
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