|Scientific Name:||Abies pinsapo var. pinsapo|
See Abies pinsapo
|Taxonomic Notes:||This assessment only relates to the populations of Abies pinsapo var. pinsapo in southeastern Spain. Populations in Morocco are assessed under the name Abies pinsapo var. maroccana.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Endangered B1ab(iii)+2ab(iii) ver 3.1|
|Assessor/s:||Arista, A., Knees, S. & Gardner, M.|
|Reviewer/s:||Thomas, P. & Farjon, A.|
The extent of occurrence (EOO) has been calculated as 940 km² and the actual area of occupancy (AOO) has been calculated as being 28.7 km² ; when a standard 4 km² grid is used, the AOO is between 10 km² and 500 km². The number of locations is three and there is a decline in its quality of habitat, mainly as a result of fire and more recently, the effects of fungal and insect pathogens as well as effects of recent droughts. These latter problems are most evident in lower altitude stands. It is therefore listed as Endangered.
Abies pinsapo var. pinsapo occurs in three locations: Sierra de Grazalema (Cádiz), Sierra de las Nieves and Sierra Bermeja (Málaga). The largest forests occur in Sierra de Grazalema and Sierra de las Nieves. In total the population has an EOO of 940 km2 with an actual AOO of 28.7 km2.
In the Sierra de Grazalema the main distribution is along the Sierra del Pinar where this variety is restricted to 4 km²; The three small localities in this area contain trees which have not yet reached reproductive age. At the Sierra de las Nieves location most trees are concentrated in the municipalities of Yunquera, Ronda and Tolox, where they occur in an area of 24 km². The smallest and most isolated subpopulation is at Reales, within the Sierra Bermeja, where it is restricted to a small area of 0.7 km².
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Abies pinsapo var. pinsapo grows mainly on northerly exposures of the Sub-Betic mountains. The trees in the Sierra de Grazalema and Sierra de las Nieves are on dolomitic soils and have an altitudinal range of 900 to 1,600 m. Above 1,100 m they form dense, pure forests, but below this altitude they form mixed communities in dense forest with Quercus rotundifolia and Q. faginea and with a shrub layer mainly of Daphne laureola ssp. latifolia, Hedera helix, Helleborus foetidus, Ruscus aculeatus and the herbs Iris foetidissima and Rubia peregrina. In the more open forest areas the fir is associated with Crataegus monogyna ssp. brevispina, Prunus spinosa, Ptilotrichum spinosum, Bupleurum spinosum, B. gibraltaricum and Cistus albidus. The forest in Sierra Bermeja is on serpentine soils and here the tree layer occurs with Quercus suber and with other conifers such as Pinus pinaster and P. halepensis (this association is also occasionally found on calcareous soils). The shrub layer on serpentine soils is composed of Erica terminalis, Genista lanuginosa, G. triacanthos, Cistus populifolius ssp. major, Bunium alpinum ssp. macuca and Cerastium gibraltaricum. Abies pinsapo has a reproductive cycle of one year; the differentiation of reproductive buds occurs in July and pollen shed and female cone receptivity occurs in April-May. Wind-borne pollen dispersal has a low capacity. Fertilization occurs two months after pollination and female cones achieve their full development by June. Seeds begin to shed in October and they enter dormancy until February when germination occurs; seeds that fail to germinate in this year die, hence there is no persistent seed bank formed.|
Fire is the main threa
Abies pinsapo var. pinsapo is protected at a regional level under the Spanish law in the “Andalusian Catalogue of Threatened Wild Plants“ (Decree 104/94) which means that it has to have a plan of conservation which is currently being developed. A
In situ conservation action: i) most of the pinsapo forests are included in the so-called “Network of Protected Areas in Andalusia”: Sierra de
Ex situ conservation actions are being carried out by the “Andalusian Networks of Botanic Gardens” and the “Andalusian Germoplasm Bank”.Lastly, research studies are being undertaken to better understand the genetic variability of the remaining forests, the level and frequency of gene flow between them and to assess the possible problems derived from climate change.
Esteban, L.G., De Palacios, P. and Rodriguez-Losada Aguado, L. 2010. Abies pinsapo forests in Spain and Morocco: threats and conservation. Oryx 44(2): 276-284.
IUCN. 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2011.2). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 10 November 2011).
Linares, J.C., Camarero, J.J. and Carreira, J.A. 2009. Interacting effects of changes in climate and forest cover on mortality and growth of the southernmost European fir forests. Global Ecology and Biogeography 18: 485-497.
|Citation:||Arista, A., Knees, S. & Gardner, M. 2011. Abies pinsapo var. pinsapo. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 10 December 2013.|
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