Mazama pandora 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Cetartiodactyla Cervidae

Scientific Name: Mazama pandora
Species Authority: Merriam, 1901
Common Name(s):
English Yucatan Brown Brocket
Spanish Temazate Café

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable A2c ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-06-30
Assessor(s): Weber, M., de Grammont, P.C. & Cuarón, A.D.
Reviewer(s): Black, P. & Gonzalez, S. (Deer Red List Authority)
This species is considered Vulnerable in light of a continuing decline in population, inferred from rates of habitat loss for this forest dependant species, estimated to be >30% over the past 3 generations (18 years). This species is a research priority as there is no information available outside of the protected area of Calakmul, thus there is no reliable information on its susceptibility to the numerous other threats which exist within its range, such as hunting and trapping.
Previously published Red List assessments:
2000 Data Deficient (DD)
1996 Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This is a recently re-discovered species. The range of the species is not completely known, but includes most of the Yucatan peninsula (Mexico), and marginally extends into northern Guatemala and Belize.
Countries occurrence:
Belize; Guatemala; Mexico
Upper elevation limit (metres): 300
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The species seems to be fairly abundant locally, and in some parts of Yucatan it seems to be more common than the brown brocket.
Current Population Trend: Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: Little is known about the ecology of this species. For many years it was considered to be a disjunct population of the brown brocket deer. It is a habitat generalist and highly adaptable deer. Since 1996, the first author is been studying its biology and ecology in South-eastern Mexico.
Systems: Terrestrial

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: Subsistence hunting is the major way of utilization of Mazama pandora in the whole of its distributional range. Some indigenous cultures in Mexico believe that the blood of deer (any deer species) might be of medicinal power for certain kinds of diseases such as some sort of anemia. They will kill or find a captive deer in order to get some fresh blood for the ill person to drink. The level of utilization is high in some areas and specific metapopulation approaches are necessary to evaluate its impacts. Some metapopulations might be decreasing in numbers as a result of hunting.

No reliable population estimates exist for the percentages of total harvests of Mazama pandora, but isolated studies in the southeast of the Yucatan Peninsula (Greater Calakmul Region) indicate that harvest is sustainable in this area (see references). The situation in other areas such as Belize, Northern Guatemala and the northwest portion of the Yucatan can be quite different with some metapopulations being probably unsustainably exploited. Research in these areas is badly needed.

Commercial trade of M. pandora is insignificant with the possible exception of the surroundings of Merida Yucatan, Mexico and Campeche where some brown brockets might be illegally harvested to supply a tiny restaurant market. This might also be possible in Flores, Peten Guatemala, but the presence of this species in the area (Peten) is still in doubt.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The species is currently a staple food of the Mayan people, but undoubtedly has also been hunted for many centuries. The effects of hunting on local populations, as well as the effects of deforestation should be examined.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: The Yucatan peninsula has two large Biosphere Reserves. The Yucatan brown brocket has been confirmed to exist in one of them (Calakmul Biosphere Reserve), and it likely occurs in Sian Ka’an Reserve as well. Confirmation and status surveys are needed. The species is also known to occur in an area of Yucatan that has been sustainably managed for timber production and other forest products for at least two decades. However, populations of this deer exist outside protected areas and in large forested communal lands know as “ejidos” in Mexico.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.5. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
suitability: Suitable  
1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
suitability: Marginal  
1. Forest -> 1.7. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Mangrove Vegetation Above High Tide Level
suitability: Unknown  
1. Forest -> 1.8. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Swamp
suitability: Marginal  
3. Shrubland -> 3.5. Shrubland - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
suitability: Suitable  
3. Shrubland -> 3.6. Shrubland - Subtropical/Tropical Moist
suitability: Suitable  
4. Grassland -> 4.5. Grassland - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
suitability: Unknown  
4. Grassland -> 4.6. Grassland - Subtropical/Tropical Seasonally Wet/Flooded
suitability: Marginal  
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.3. Artificial/Terrestrial - Plantations
suitability: Marginal  
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
1. Land/water protection -> 1.2. Resource & habitat protection
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
2. Land/water management -> 2.3. Habitat & natural process restoration
3. Species management -> 3.1. Species management -> 3.1.2. Trade management
3. Species management -> 3.1. Species management -> 3.1.3. Limiting population growth
3. Species management -> 3.2. Species recovery
3. Species management -> 3.3. Species re-introduction -> 3.3.1. Reintroduction
3. Species management -> 3.3. Species re-introduction -> 3.3.2. Benign introduction
3. Species management -> 3.4. Ex-situ conservation -> 3.4.1. Captive breeding/artificial propagation
3. Species management -> 3.4. Ex-situ conservation -> 3.4.2. Genome resource bank
4. Education & awareness -> 4.1. Formal education
4. Education & awareness -> 4.2. Training
4. Education & awareness -> 4.3. Awareness & communications
5. Law & policy -> 5.1. Legislation -> 5.1.1. International level
5. Law & policy -> 5.4. Compliance and enforcement -> 5.4.1. International level
6. Livelihood, economic & other incentives -> 6.1. Linked enterprises & livelihood alternatives

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.2. Small-holder farming
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
1. Research -> 1.6. Actions

Bibliography [top]

Medellín, A. R., Gardner, A. L. and Arya, J. M. 1998. The taxonomic status of the Yucatán brown brocket, Mazama pandora (Mammalia: Cervidae). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 111(1): 1-14.

Citation: Weber, M., de Grammont, P.C. & Cuarón, A.D. 2008. Mazama pandora. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T29622A9506829. . Downloaded on 29 May 2016.
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