Mazama pandora 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Cetartiodactyla Cervidae

Scientific Name: Mazama pandora Merriam, 1901
Common Name(s):
English Yucatan Brown Brocket
Spanish Temazate Café
Taxonomic Notes: Grubb in Wilson and Reeder (1993) treats this as a synonym of M. americana.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable A2c ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2015-06-16
Assessor(s): Weber, M., de Grammont, P.C. & Cuarón, A.D.
Reviewer(s): Zanetti, E.S.Z. & González, S.
This species is considered Vulnerable in light of a decline in population more than 30% over the past 3 generations (18 years), suspected from rates of habitat loss for this forest dependant species. This species is a research priority as there is no information available outside of the protected area of Calakmul, thus there is no reliable information on its susceptibility to the numerous other threats which exist within its range, such as hunting and trapping.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This is a recently re-discovered species. The range of the species is not completely known, but includes most of the Yucatan peninsula (Mexico), and marginally extends into northern Guatemala and Belize.
Countries occurrence:
Belize; Guatemala; Mexico
Additional data:
Upper elevation limit (metres):300
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:As the species is cryptic with Brown Brocket is not easy to determine the abundance of them.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Little is known about the ecology of this species. For many years it was considered to be a disjunct population of the Brown Brocket. It is a habitat generalist and highly adaptable deer. Since 1996, the first author is been studying its biology and ecology in South-eastern Mexico.
Generation Length (years):6

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: Subsistence hunting is the major way of utilization of Mazama pandora in the whole of its distributional range. Some indigenous cultures in Mexico believe that the blood of deer (any deer species) might be of medicinal power for certain kinds of diseases such as some sort of anemia. They will kill or find a captive deer in order to get some fresh blood for the ill person to drink. The level of utilization is high in some areas and specific metapopulation approaches are necessary to evaluate its impacts. Some metapopulations might be decreasing in numbers as a result of hunting.

No reliable population estimates exist for the percentages of total harvests of Mazama pandora, but isolated studies in the southeast of the Yucatan Peninsula (Greater Calakmul Region) indicate that harvest is sustainable in this area (see references). The situation in other areas such as Belize, Northern Guatemala and the northwest portion of the Yucatan can be quite different with some metapopulations being probably unsustainably exploited. Research in these areas is badly needed.

Commercial trade of M. pandora is insignificant with the possible exception of the surroundings of Merida Yucatan, Mexico and Campeche where some brown brockets might be illegally harvested to supply a tiny restaurant market. This might also be possible in Flores, Peten Guatemala, but the presence of this species in the area (Peten) is still in doubt.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The species is currently a staple food of the Mayan people, but undoubtedly has also been hunted for many centuries. The effects of hunting on local populations, as well as the effects of deforestation should be examined. The areas of distribution of Mexican ungulates have declined markedly and local populations have been eradicated in some localities. The main causes are uncontrolled hunting, and the loss and fragmentation of habitat (Weber and González 2003).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: The Yucatan peninsula has two large Biosphere Reserves. The Yucatan Brown Brocket has been confirmed to exist in one of them (Calakmul Biosphere Reserve), and it probably occurs in Sian Ka’an Reserve as well. Confirmation and status surveys are needed. The species is also known to occur in an area of Yucatan that has been sustainably managed for timber production and other forest products for at least two decades. However, populations of this deer exist outside protected areas and in large forested communal lands know as “ejidos” in Mexico.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.5. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
1. Forest -> 1.7. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Mangrove Vegetation Above High Tide Level
1. Forest -> 1.8. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Swamp
3. Shrubland -> 3.5. Shrubland - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
3. Shrubland -> 3.6. Shrubland - Subtropical/Tropical Moist
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
4. Grassland -> 4.5. Grassland - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
4. Grassland -> 4.6. Grassland - Subtropical/Tropical Seasonally Wet/Flooded
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.3. Artificial/Terrestrial - Plantations
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
1. Land/water protection -> 1.2. Resource & habitat protection
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
2. Land/water management -> 2.3. Habitat & natural process restoration
3. Species management -> 3.1. Species management -> 3.1.2. Trade management
3. Species management -> 3.1. Species management -> 3.1.3. Limiting population growth
3. Species management -> 3.2. Species recovery
3. Species management -> 3.3. Species re-introduction -> 3.3.1. Reintroduction
3. Species management -> 3.3. Species re-introduction -> 3.3.2. Benign introduction
3. Species management -> 3.4. Ex-situ conservation -> 3.4.1. Captive breeding/artificial propagation
3. Species management -> 3.4. Ex-situ conservation -> 3.4.2. Genome resource bank
4. Education & awareness -> 4.1. Formal education
4. Education & awareness -> 4.2. Training
4. Education & awareness -> 4.3. Awareness & communications
5. Law & policy -> 5.1. Legislation -> 5.1.1. International level
5. Law & policy -> 5.4. Compliance and enforcement -> 5.4.1. International level
6. Livelihood, economic & other incentives -> 6.1. Linked enterprises & livelihood alternatives

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.2. Small-holder farming
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
1. Research -> 1.6. Actions

Bibliography [top]

IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-2. Available at: (Accessed: 04 September 2016).

Medellín, A. R., Gardner, A. L. and Arya, J. M. 1998. The taxonomic status of the Yucatán brown brocket, Mazama pandora (Mammalia: Cervidae). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 111(1): 1-14.

Weber, M. and González, S. 2003. Latin American deer diversity and conservation: a review of status and distribution. Ecoscience 10(4): 443-454.

Weber, M. and Medellin, R.A. 2010. Yucatan Brown Brocket Deer Mazama pandora (Merriam, 1991). In: J.M.B. Duarte and S. González (eds), Neotropical Cervidology, pp. 211-216. Jaboticabal, Funep-IUCN.

Citation: Weber, M., de Grammont, P.C. & Cuarón, A.D. 2016. Mazama pandora. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T29622A22154219. . Downloaded on 26 May 2018.
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