|Scientific Name:||Mazama pandora Merriam, 1901|
|Taxonomic Notes:||Grubb in Wilson and Reeder (1993) treats this as a synonym of M. americana.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Vulnerable A2c ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Weber, M., de Grammont, P.C. & Cuarón, A.D.|
|Reviewer(s):||Zanetti, E.S.Z. & González, S.|
This species is considered Vulnerable in light of a decline in population more than 30% over the past 3 generations (18 years), suspected from rates of habitat loss for this forest dependant species. This species is a research priority as there is no information available outside of the protected area of Calakmul, thus there is no reliable information on its susceptibility to the numerous other threats which exist within its range, such as hunting and trapping.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||This is a recently re-discovered species. The range of the species is not completely known, but includes most of the Yucatan peninsula (Mexico), and marginally extends into northern Guatemala and Belize.|
Native:Belize; Guatemala; Mexico
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||As the species is cryptic with Brown Brocket is not easy to determine the abundance of them.|
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Little is known about the ecology of this species. For many years it was considered to be a disjunct population of the Brown Brocket. It is a habitat generalist and highly adaptable deer. Since 1996, the first author is been studying its biology and ecology in South-eastern Mexico.|
|Generation Length (years):||6|
|Use and Trade:||
Subsistence hunting is the major way of utilization of Mazama pandora in the whole of its distributional range. Some indigenous cultures in Mexico believe that the blood of deer (any deer species) might be of medicinal power for certain kinds of diseases such as some sort of anemia. They will kill or find a captive deer in order to get some fresh blood for the ill person to drink. The level of utilization is high in some areas and specific metapopulation approaches are necessary to evaluate its impacts. Some metapopulations might be decreasing in numbers as a result of hunting.
No reliable population estimates exist for the percentages of total harvests of Mazama pandora, but isolated studies in the southeast of the Yucatan Peninsula (Greater Calakmul Region) indicate that harvest is sustainable in this area (see references). The situation in other areas such as Belize, Northern Guatemala and the northwest portion of the Yucatan can be quite different with some metapopulations being probably unsustainably exploited. Research in these areas is badly needed.
Commercial trade of M. pandora is insignificant with the possible exception of the surroundings of Merida Yucatan, Mexico and Campeche where some brown brockets might be illegally harvested to supply a tiny restaurant market. This might also be possible in Flores, Peten Guatemala, but the presence of this species in the area (Peten) is still in doubt.
|Major Threat(s):||The species is currently a staple food of the Mayan people, but undoubtedly has also been hunted for many centuries. The effects of hunting on local populations, as well as the effects of deforestation should be examined. The areas of distribution of Mexican ungulates have declined markedly and local populations have been eradicated in some localities. The main causes are uncontrolled hunting, and the loss and fragmentation of habitat (Weber and González 2003).|
|Conservation Actions:||The Yucatan peninsula has two large Biosphere Reserves. The Yucatan Brown Brocket has been confirmed to exist in one of them (Calakmul Biosphere Reserve), and it probably occurs in Sian Ka’an Reserve as well. Confirmation and status surveys are needed. The species is also known to occur in an area of Yucatan that has been sustainably managed for timber production and other forest products for at least two decades. However, populations of this deer exist outside protected areas and in large forested communal lands know as “ejidos” in Mexico.|
IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-2. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 04 September 2016).
Medellín, A. R., Gardner, A. L. and Arya, J. M. 1998. The taxonomic status of the Yucatán brown brocket, Mazama pandora (Mammalia: Cervidae). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 111(1): 1-14.
Weber, M. and González, S. 2003. Latin American deer diversity and conservation: a review of status and distribution. Ecoscience 10(4): 443-454.
Weber, M. and Medellin, R.A. 2010. Yucatan Brown Brocket Deer Mazama pandora (Merriam, 1991). In: J.M.B. Duarte and S. González (eds), Neotropical Cervidology, pp. 211-216. Jaboticabal, Funep-IUCN.
|Citation:||Weber, M., de Grammont, P.C. & Cuarón, A.D. 2016. Mazama pandora. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T29622A22154219.Downloaded on 22 October 2017.|
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