|Scientific Name:||Mazama nana|
|Species Authority:||(Hensel, 1872)|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Data Deficient ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Abril, V.V. & Duarte, J.M.B.|
|Reviewer(s):||Black, P. & Gonzalez, S. (Deer Red List Authority)|
This species is considered to be Data Deficient, as there is insufficient scientific information to classify this species into any other category. There is every indication that this species is threatened by habitat loss, fragmentation of remaining populations, hunting and exposure to diseases brought in by domestic species. This species is a priority for future research as we need to know more about its biology, actual distribution, habit status and threats is necessary for clarifying the real situation to apply the Red List Criteria.
|Range Description:||Known from a small sample of specimens in museums, this species was formerly included within the little dwarf brocket, Mazama rufina (Redford and Eisenberg 1992). For Redford and Eisenberg (1992) and Eisenberg and Redford (1999) this species occurs in southeast Paraguay, north of Misiones Province in Argentina, and in the Brazilian states of Minas Gerais (extreme south), São Paulo (except Serra do Mar), Mato Grosso do Sul (south and southeast), Paraná, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul (north). However, this distribution is not consistent with the origin of scarce material in the Brazilian scientific collections that restrict its distribution to the southwest of Sao Paulo (to the south of Paranapanema River), Parana, Santa Catarina and north of Rio Grande do Sul (Rossi 2000).
The loss of preferential habitats could have caused the occupation of forest formations less preferred by the species. This would explain the recent records in the east of Parana and Santa Catarina (Montane Forest and Submontane Ombrophilous Dense Forest) (Margarido and Braga 2004, J.M.B. Duarte pers. comm.) and the absence of historical records in these regions (Rossi 2000).
The National Museum of Natural History of Paraguay has records of M. nana in San Rafael National Park region (Gamarra de Fox and Martin 1996) and in Argentina, the species may be found in almost all the remaining natural forests of Misiones Province (D.M. Varella pers. comm.).
Native:Argentina; Brazil; Paraguay
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||There is no precise information on the population size in any of the areas where it has been observed nor on the degree of connectivity between them, but it is likely that its populations are being decreased by the decline of the moist lowland forests within its range.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||The Brazilian red brocket probably resembles the other dwarf brockets (M. rufina and M. chunyi) in many aspects of its ecology, and merits detailed study in the field. According to Crespo (cited in Eisenberg in prep.), a single spotted fawn is born between September and February in northeastern Argentina. The habitat in eastern Paraguay is moist forest with an understory of bamboo thickets.There is evidence of an annual cycle of antler growth and casting in the captive animals in Argentina (Chebez and Varela 2001). In Brazil, this cycle apparently does not exist (J.M.B. Duarte pers. comm.). This is the smallest deer species in Brazil, rarely exceeding 15 kg and 45 cm height (Duarte 1996). According to Rossi (2000) the animals have an intense and shiny reddish - chestnut general coloration. The submandibular, maxillary and ventral regions are light brown. The ears are small, somewhat slender and sometimes almost totally hairless. Czernay (1987) describes the hind legs as darker than the forelegs, which are shorter, giving origin to the Brazilian common name (mão-curta = short-hand) (Mikich and Bérnils 2004).|
In spite of all the uncertainties in ecological and biological aspects, it is the most threatened deer of Brazil and possibly of the Neotropical region. The population isolation caused by habitat loss in the past must be the main threat to the maintenance of the remaining population at the present time. The fragmentation tends to increase pressures, such as: hunting, predation by dogs, the exposure to the diseases of domestic species, and the progressive degradation of small forest fragments (edge effect) (Galindo- Leal and De Gusmão Câmara, 2003).
In Paraguay, the populations are also threatened due to loss of habitat (J.L.Cartes pers. comm.)
In Argentina, M. nana is considered as vulnerable although the populations of Misiones Province seem to be stable (Diaz and Ojeda 2000). One of the major conservation problems is hunting, mainly in the provincial parks and private forests. However, the construction of roads has increased the number of road-kills and could be affecting the populations.
In Brazil with respect to protected areas, the species is mentioned in Iguaçu National Park, Lauraceas State Park, Pau Oco State Park, Boguaçu State Park, in the Private Reserve of the Natural Patrimony (RPPN) Federal das Araucárias (General Carneiro city) and RPPN Monte Alegre Farm in Telêmaco Borba city (J.M.B. Duarte pers. comm.).
In Misiones, Argentina, many conservation units shelter important populations of this species, such as the Iguaçu National Park and the State Parks of Urugua-í, Foerster, Piñalito, Cruce Caballero, Esmeralda, Moconá y Cuña Pirú (D.M. Varela pers. comm.). In Paraguay, the majority of the Atlantic Forest habitats are extinct, what remains is in protected areas such as Reserva Natural del Bosque Mbaracayú and the Itaipu Hydroelectric Power Plant Reserve. Currently, San Rafael National Park, which has records of the species, suffers many pressures and threats (J.L. Cartes pers. comm.)
Chebez, J. C. and Varela, D. 2001. Corzuela enana. In: C. M. Dellafiore and N. Macieira (eds), Los ciervos autóctonos de la Argentina y la acción del hombre, pp. 51-56. Grupo Abierto Comunicaciones, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
Czernay, S. 1987. Spiesshirsche und Pudus. Die Neue Brehm Bucherei 581: 1-84.
Díaz, G. B and Ojeda, R. A. (eds). 2000. Libro rojo: mamíferos amenazados de la Argentina. pp. 106 pp.. Soc. Argentina para el Estudio de los Mamíferos, Buenos Aires.
Duarte, J. M. B. 1996. Guia de identificação de cervídeos brasileiros. FUNEP.
Eisenberg, J.F. and Redford, K.H. 1999. Mammals of the Neotropics: The Central Neotropics. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, USA.
Galindo-Leal, C. and De Gusmao Câmara, I. (eds). 2003. The Atlantic Forest of South America: biodiversity status, threats, and outlook. State of the Hotspots. Island Press, CABS/CI, Washington, DC, USA.
Gamarra de Fox, I. and Martin, A. J. 1996. Mastozoología in Colecciones de Flora y Fauna del Museo Nacional de Historia Natural del Paraguay. MAG/SSERNMA/DPNVS/MNHNP.
Margarido, T. C. C. and Braga, F. G. 2004. Mamíferos. Livro vermelho da fauna ameaçada no Estado do Paraná.: 27-142.
Mikich, S.B. and Bernils, R.S. 2004. Livro Vermelho do Fauna Ameaçada no Estado do Paraná. Instituto Ambiental do Paraná, Curitiba, Brazil.
Redford, K.H. and Eisenberg, J.F. 1992. Mammals of the Neotropics, The Southern Cone: Chile, Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, USA.
|Citation:||Abril, V.V. & Duarte, J.M.B. 2008. Mazama nana. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 01 September 2014.|
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