Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Actinopterygii Perciformes Osphronemidae

Scientific Name: Betta simplex
Species Authority: Kottelat, 1994
Common Name(s):
English Krabi Mouth Brooding Betta

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Critically Endangered B1ab(iii)+2ab(iii) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2013
Date Assessed: 2011-02-21
Assessor(s): Vidthayanon, C.
Reviewer(s): Parenti, L. & Juffe Bignoli, D.
This species is known from only one location in Krabi Province southern Thailand. It covers a very small geographic range and the area of suitable habitat available for the species is limited; its extent of occurrence is estimated at less than 100 km², and its area of occupancy is estimated at less than 10 km². The species is impacted by local fishing and by habitat degradation due to agrochemical contamination and activities related to tourism. It is listed as Critically Endangered because of ongoing threats across a very limited geographic range.
Previously published Red List assessments:
1996 Vulnerable (VU)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species is endemic to Krabi Province, peninsular Thailand, where it occurs in small areas of karst spring and wetlands near Khao Thong village. It has only been recorded from one location.
Countries occurrence:
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2: 5-10
Number of Locations: 1
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The species is locally uncommon throughout its known range.
Current Population Trend: Unknown
Additional data:

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: It inhabits small karst pools, springs and streams in lowland.
Systems: Freshwater
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat: Yes

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: Occasionally this fish is traded for the aquarium trade as a rare item. It is also fished by locals and used as bait fish (pole line for Anguilla spp.).

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Overfishing for bait fish may threaten this species. Also habitat degradation of karst wetlands from agrochemical contamination as well as conversion for farmlands significantly threaten this species.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is regularly bred in captivity by aquarists. Research and monitoring of populations in its habitat is needed to develop a management plan.

Classifications [top]

5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.1. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls)
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.4. Scale Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.4. Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources -> 5.4.1. Intentional use: (subsistence/small scale)
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

9. Pollution -> 9.3. Agricultural & forestry effluents -> 9.3.1. Nutrient loads
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

9. Pollution -> 9.3. Agricultural & forestry effluents -> 9.3.3. Herbicides and pesticides
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
2. Conservation Planning -> 2.3. Harvest & Trade Management Plan

♦  Food - human
 Local : ✓ 

♦  Pets/display animals, horticulture
 National : ✓  International : ✓ 

♦  Other (free text)
 Local : ✓ 

Bibliography [top]

IUCN. 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2011.1). Available at: (Accessed: 16 June 2011).

Citation: Vidthayanon, C. 2013. Betta simplex. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T2777A9479973. . Downloaded on 09 October 2015.
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