Zaglossus bruijnii 

Scope: Global

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Monotremata Tachyglossidae

Scientific Name: Zaglossus bruijnii
Species Authority: (Peters & Doria, 1876)
Common Name(s):
English Western Long-beaked Echidna, Long-nosed Spiny Anteater, New Guinea Long-nosed Echidna, Long-beaked Echidna, Long-nosed Echidna
French Echidné À Bec Courbe, Echidné À Nez Long, Echidné De Nouvelle-guinée
Spanish Echidnos Narilargos, Equidna De Nueva Guinea
Zaglossus bruijni (Peters & Doria, 1876) [orth. error]
Taxonomic Notes: This species is often listed as Zaglossus bruijni, but the correct spelling is Z. bruijnii (K. Helgen pers. comm.).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Critically Endangered A2acd ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-06-30
Assessor(s): Leary, T., Seri, L., Flannery, T., Wright, D., Hamilton, S., Helgen, K., Singadan, R., Menzies, J., Allison, A., James, R., Aplin, K., Salas, L. & Dickman, C.
Reviewer(s): Lamoreux, J. & Hilton-Taylor, C. (Global Mammal Assessment Team)
Listed as Critically Endangered due to a suspected continuing population decline of at least 80% over the last three generations (i.e., the last 45-50 years) based on direct observation in parts of its range, declines in area of occupancy (reports from hunters), and actual levels of exploitation due to hunting.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is largely restricted to the Vogelkop Peninsula region of Papua Province, Indonesia. It has also been recorded from the island of Salawati, Indonesia (possibly now extinct there), and it is possible that the species may be present on the islands of Batanta and Waigeo (both Indonesia, but not mapped) (Flannery 1995a,b; Helgen 2007). It ranges from near sea level to 2,500 m asl.
Countries occurrence:
Indonesia (Papua)
Additional data:
Upper elevation limit (metres):2500
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:This species has not been recorded since the 1980s. It is thought to be uncommon in forest habitats that are accessible to hunting. It may be more common in inaccessible areas. The species has been hunted to local extinction in more densely populated regions of New Guinea.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This species ranges from tropical hill forests to upper montane forests. It has a large altitudinal range. This species lays eggs and the primary food is worms.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): It is heavily threatened by hunting for food by local people, and also by loss of habitat through conversion of suitable areas to cultivated land. It has retreated up the mountains over time, and the montane habitat for this species is now small and isolated.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is listed on Appendix II of CITES. It has been recorded from a national park. Hunting regulations are needed to protect this species. Further field studies to identify important areas for this species are needed.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
1. Forest -> 1.9. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
1. Land/water protection -> 1.2. Resource & habitat protection
3. Species management -> 3.1. Species management -> 3.1.1. Harvest management
4. Education & awareness -> 4.3. Awareness & communications

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
  Included in international legislation:Yes
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:Yes
2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.2. Small-holder farming
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

♦  Food - human
 Local : ✓  International : ✓ 

Bibliography [top]

Flannery, T.F. 1995. Mammals of the South-West Pacific and Moluccan Islands. Comstock/Cornell, Ithaca, Ny, USA.

Flannery, T.F. 1995. The Mammals of New Guinea, 2nd edition. Reed Books, Sydney, Australia.

Flannery, T. F. and Groves, C. P. 1988. A revision of the genus Zaglossus (Monotremata, Tachyglossidae), with description of new species and subspecies. Mammalia 62: 367-396.

Helgen, K. M. 2007. A Taxonomic and Geographic Overview of the Mammals of Papua. In: A. J. Marshall and B. M. Beehler (eds), The Ecology of Papua, pp. 689-749. Periplus Editions, Singapore.

Citation: Leary, T., Seri, L., Flannery, T., Wright, D., Hamilton, S., Helgen, K., Singadan, R., Menzies, J., Allison, A., James, R., Aplin, K., Salas, L. & Dickman, C. 2008. Zaglossus bruijnii. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T23179A9426076. . Downloaded on 27 August 2016.
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