Zaedyus pichiy 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Cingulata Chlamyphoridae

Scientific Name: Zaedyus pichiy (Desmarest, 1804)
Common Name(s):
English Pichi
Spanish Piche
Taxonomic Notes: Two subspecies are described but require confirmation: Z. p. pichiy and Z. p. caurinus (Gardner 2007).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Near Threatened ver 3.1
Year Published: 2014
Date Assessed: 2013-12-04
Assessor(s): Superina, M. & Abba, A.M.
Reviewer(s): Loughry, J.
Contributor(s): Roig, V.G., Iriarte Walton, A. & Arriagada, A.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Superina, M.
Zaedyus pichiy is listed as Near Threatened as, although widespread and present in a number of protected areas, it is hunted significantly, especially in northern and eastern portions of its range, with local extinctions recorded in some areas; there is little known about the declines in the southern part of its range. It is thought likely that this species almost qualifies for a threatened category under criterion A2d due to ongoing exploitation levels, which have led to a decline in the order of 20% over three generations (suspected to be around 12 years).
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This small armadillo ranges from Argentina (San Juan and La Rioja) and eastern Chile south to the Straits of Magellan. It is found from sea level to 2,500 m Asl.
Countries occurrence:
Argentina (Buenos Aires, Chubut, Córdoba, La Pampa, La Rioja, Mendoza, Neuquén, Rio Negro, San Juan, San Luis, Santa Cruz); Chile (Aisén, Biobío, Coquimbo, La Araucania, Los Lagos, Magellanes, Maule, O'Higgins, Santiago, Valparaíso)
Additional data:
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):NoExtreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):No
Upper elevation limit (metres):2500
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:Zaedyus pichiy is not abundant in southern Buenos Aires Province (Abba and Vizcaíno 2011), and its abundance has declined in Mendoza Province over the last 15 years (Superina 2008). No population data are available from other parts of its range, but as it is hunted throughout its range, its global population trend is declining.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Continuing decline of mature individuals:Yes
Extreme fluctuations:NoPopulation severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This solitary species is found in desert, xeric grassland and shrubland, and Patagonian steppe habitats, always with sandy soils (including volcanic soil; Superina 2008). It can be found in some degraded habitats, such as pastureland and plantations. Animals have a relatively large home range within their arid habitat. Reproduction is restricted to the Spring months (Superina and Jahn 2009), and the female gives birth to one or two young (Superina et al. 2009). Zaedyus pichiy is the only armadillo species known to hibernate during the cold season (Superina and Boily 2007). It can enter torpor during periods of environmental stress (Superina and Jahn 2013).

It is not possible to determine their age once they reach adult size, and long-term population studies on pichis are lacking. Therefore, there are no data on the longevity, survival rates, or reproductive rates of wild pichis. Data from captive animals in Argentina show that females reach sexual maturity at 9-10 months of age, but that some females do not breed until their second year (Superina et al. 2009). Limited data from captive pichis suggest that their longevity is approximately 10 years. The generation length is thus suspected to be around 4 years
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes
Generation Length (years):4

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: Zaedyus pichiy is intensely used as a protein source. It is also used to make handicrafts.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Zaedyus pichiy is threatened by hunting for food and sport, including hunting with dogs. It is the main prey of poachers in Mendoza Province, Argentina (Superina 2008). An epidemic of an unknown disease has locally affected the species in some areas, and appears to be associated with rainy periods (Superina 2007, Superina et al. 2009). It is threatened to some degree by overgrazing of its habitat by cattle.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Zaedyus pichiy is present in many protected areas. Hunting of this species in Argentina and Chile continues, even though this is prohibited.

Classifications [top]

3. Shrubland -> 3.4. Shrubland - Temperate
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:Yes
3. Shrubland -> 3.5. Shrubland - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:Yes
4. Grassland -> 4.4. Grassland - Temperate
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:No
8. Desert -> 8.2. Desert - Temperate
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:Yes
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.2. Artificial/Terrestrial - Pastureland
suitability:Marginal season:resident 
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.3. Artificial/Terrestrial - Plantations
suitability:Marginal season:resident 
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
3. Species management -> 3.1. Species management -> 3.1.1. Harvest management
4. Education & awareness -> 4.1. Formal education
4. Education & awareness -> 4.3. Awareness & communications

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
  Action Recovery plan:Yes
  Systematic monitoring scheme:No
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
  Area based regional management plan:No
In-Place Species Management
  Harvest management plan:No
  Successfully reintroduced or introduced beningly:No
  Subject to ex-situ conservation:No
In-Place Education
  Subject to recent education and awareness programmes:No
  Included in international legislation:No
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:No
11. Climate change & severe weather -> 11.4. Storms & flooding
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Minority (<50%) ♦ severity:Causing/Could cause fluctuations ⇒ Impact score:Low Impact: 5 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.3. Livestock farming & ranching -> 2.3.3. Agro-industry grazing, ranching or farming
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Majority (50-90%) ♦ severity:Causing/Could cause fluctuations ⇒ Impact score:Medium Impact: 6 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.2. Species disturbance

5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Whole (>90%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score:Medium Impact: 7 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

1. Research -> 1.1. Taxonomy
1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
2. Conservation Planning -> 2.1. Species Action/Recovery Plan
2. Conservation Planning -> 2.3. Harvest & Trade Management Plan
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends
3. Monitoring -> 3.2. Harvest level trends
3. Monitoring -> 3.4. Habitat trends

♦  Food - human
 Local : ✓   National : ✓ 

♦  Handicrafts, jewellery, etc.
 Local : ✓   National : ✓ 

♦  Sport hunting/specimen collecting
 Local : ✓   National : ✓ 

Bibliography [top]

Abba, A.M. and Vizcaíno, S.F. 2011. Distribución de los armadillos (Xenarthra: Dasypodidae) en la provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina. Mastozoología Neotropical 18: 185-206.

Abba, A.M., Tognelli, M.F., Seitz, V.P., Bender, J.B. and Vizcaíno, S.F. 2012. Distribution of extant xenarthrans (Mammalia: Xenarthra) in Argentina using species distribution models. Mammalia 76: 123-136.

Aguiar, J.M. and da Fonseca, G.A.B. 2008. Conservation status of the Xenarthra. In: S.F. Vizcaino and W.J. Loughry (eds), The Biology of the Xenarthra, pp. 215-231. University Press of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.

Baillie, J. and Groombridge, B. (comps and eds). 1996. 1996 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Gardner, A.L. 1993. Order Xenarthra. In: D.E. Wilson and D.M. Reeder (eds), Mammal Species of the World: A taxonomic and geographic reference. Second Edition, pp. 63-68. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA.

Gardner, A.L. 2005. Order Cingulata. In: D.E. Wilson and D.M. Reeder (eds), Mammal Species of the World: A taxonomic and geographic reference. Third edition., pp. 94-99. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Iriarte, A.W. 2008. Mamíferos de Chile. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

IUCN. 2014. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.1. Available at: (Accessed: 12 June 2014).

Redford, K.H. and Eisenberg, J.F. 1992. Mammals of the Neotropics, The Southern Cone: Chile, Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, USA.

Superina, M. 2007. Natural history of the pichi (Zaedyus pichiy) in Mendoza Province, Argentina. Department of Biology, University of New Orleans.

Superina, M. 2008. The natural history of the Pichi, Zaedyus pichiy, in western Argentina. In: S. F. Vizcaino and W. J. Loughry (eds), The Biology of the Xenarthra, pp. 313-318. University Press of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA.

Superina, M. and Abba, A.M. 2014. Zaedyus pichiy (Cingulata: Dasypodidae). Mammalian Species 46(905): 1-10.

Superina, M. and Boily, P. 2007. Hibernation and daily torpor in an armadillo, the pichi (Zaedyus pichiy). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A Comparative Physiology 148: 893-898.

Superina, M. and Jahn, G. 2009. Seasonal reproduction in male pichis Zaedyus pichiy (Xenarthra: Dasypodidae) estimated by fecal androgen metabolites and testicular histology. Animal Reproduction Science 112: 283-292.

Superina, M. and Jahn, G.A. 2013. Effect of low-quality diet on torpor frequency and depth in the pichi Zaedyus pichiy (Xenarthra, Dasypodidae), a South American armadillo. Journal of Thermal Biology 38: 280-285.

Superina, M., Carreño, N. and Jahn, G. 2009. Characterization of seasonal reproduction patterns in female pichis, Zaedyus pichiy (Xenarthra: Dasypodidae) estimated by fecal sex steroid metabolites and ovarian histology. Animal Reproduction Science 116: 358-369.

Superina, M., Garner, M.M. and Aguilar, R.F. 2009. Health evaluation of free-ranging and captive pichis, Zaedyus pichiy (Mammalia, Dasypodidae) in Mendoza Province, Argentina. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 45: 174-183.

Wetzel, R.M. 1982. Systematics, distribution, ecology, and conservation of South American edentates. In: M.A. Mares and H.H. Genoways (eds), Mammalian biology in South America, pp. 345-375. University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

Citation: Superina, M. & Abba, A.M. 2014. Zaedyus pichiy. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2014: e.T23178A47443734. . Downloaded on 21 June 2018.
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