|Scientific Name:||Varecia rubra|
|Species Authority:||(E. Geoffroy, 1812)|
Varecia variegata (É. Geoffroy, 1812) subspecies rubra
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Endangered B1ab(iii,v) ver 3.1|
|Assessor/s:||Andrainarivo, C., Andriaholinirina, V.N., Feistner, A., Felix, T., Ganzhorn, J., Garbutt, N., Golden, C., Konstant, B., Louis Jr., E., Meyers, D., Mittermeier, R.A., Perieras, A., Princee, F., Rabarivola, J.C., Rakotosamimanana, B., Rasamimanana, H., Ratsimbazafy, J., Raveloarinoro, G., Razafimanantsoa, A., Rumpler, Y., Schwitzer, C., Thalmann, U., Wilmé, L. & Wright, P.|
|Reviewer/s:||Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority)|
Listed as Endangered as the species has a range of about 4,000 km², occurs only on the Masoalo Peninsula, and is currently at risk of ongoing habitat loss and hunting.
|Range Description:||This species has a restricted range, primarily inhabiting the remaining primary forests of the Masoala Peninsula and the region immediately north of the Bay of Antongil in north-eastern Madagascar. The Antainambalana River appears to separate this species from V. variegata, but the western and northern limits of the Red Ruffed Lemur’s range remain unclear (Mittermeier et al. 2008, and references therein). Historically, the two species overlapped in the region north of the Bay of Antongil. Recent survey work in the region has shown that the westernmost distribution of V. rubra was near the confluence of the Antainambalana and Sahantaha Rivers (Hekkala et al. 2007). Ranges from sea-level to 1,200 m.|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Density estimates have been recorded at 31-53 individuals/km² in Andranobe (Vasey 1997: IJP) and 21-23 individuals/km² in at Ambatonakolahy (Rigamonti 1993).|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This species has been the subject of ecological and behavioral studies in the forests of Ambatonakolahy (Rigamonti 1993) and Andranobe on the Masoala Peninsula (Vasey 1997: thesis). It is diurnal, prefers high forest and is often observed in the crowns of large feeding trees. It is largely frugivorous. The mating season is May-July, with births occurring from September through early November after a gestation period of about 102 days. Litters range from one to five infants in captivity, but usually contain two or three, and only one young every two years normally survive (Brockman et al. 1987, Schwitzer 2003). Interbirth intervals are in the order of two years (Rakotondratsima and Kremen 2001).|
|Major Threat(s):||Due to its large size and apparent need for tall primary forest, this species is susceptible to human encroachment and habitat loss (particularly due to slash-and-burn agriculture). Hunting also remains a threat.|
|Conservation Actions:||This species is listed on Appendix I of CITES. It is protected officially only within the Masoala National Park and the Makira Protected Area. Increased regulation and management of hunting within the range is recommended.|
Brockman, D. K., Willis, M. S. and Karesh, W. B. 1987. Management and husbandry of ruffed lemurs, Varecia variegata, at the San Diego Zoo. II. Reproduction, pregnancy, parturition, litter size, infant care, and reintroduction of hand-raised infants. Zoo Biology 6: 349–363.
Hekkala, E. R., Rakotondratsima, M. and Vasey, N. 2007. Habitat and distribution of the ruffed lemur, Varecia, north of the Bay of Antongil in north-eastern Madagascar. Primate Conservation 22: 89-95.
Mittermeier, R., Louis, E., Hawkins, F., Langrand, O., Ganzhorn, J., Konstant, W., Rasoloarison, R., Rajaobelina, S. and Richardson, M. 2008. Lemurs of Madagascar, 3rd edition. Conservation International.
Rakotondratsima, M. and Kremen, C. 2001. Suivi écologique de deux espèces de lémuriens diurnes Varecia variegata rubra et Eulemur fulvus albifrons dans la presqu’île de Masoala (1993 – 1998). Lemur News 6: 31–35.
Rigamonti, M. M. 1993. Home range and diet in red ruffed lemurs (Varecia varigata rubra) on the Masoala Peninsula, Madagascar. In: P. M. Kappeler and J. U. Ganzhorn (eds), Lemur Social Systems and their Ecological Basis, pp. 25–39. Plenum Press, New York, USA.
Schwitzer, C. 2003. Energy intake and obesity in captive lemurs (primates, Lemuridae). Thesis, Universität zu Köln. Münster: Schüling Verlag.
Vasey, N. 1997. Community ecology and behavior of Varecia variegata rubra and Lemur fulvus albifrons on the Masoala Peninsula, Madagascar. Ph.D. Thesis, Washington University.
Vasey, N. 1997. How many red ruffed lemurs are left? International Journal of Primatology 18: 207-216.
|Citation:||Andrainarivo, C., Andriaholinirina, V.N., Feistner, A., Felix, T., Ganzhorn, J., Garbutt, N., Golden, C., Konstant, B., Louis Jr., E., Meyers, D., Mittermeier, R.A., Perieras, A., Princee, F., Rabarivola, J.C., Rakotosamimanana, B., Rasamimanana, H., Ratsimbazafy, J., Raveloarinoro, G., Razafimanantsoa, A., Rumpler, Y., Schwitzer, C., Thalmann, U., Wilmé, L. & Wright, P. 2008. Varecia rubra. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 12 December 2013.|
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