|Scientific Name:||Pterodroma feae (Salvadori, 1899)|
|Taxonomic Source(s):||del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.|
Pterodroma feae and P. deserta (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) were previously lumped as P. feae following Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993).
|Identification information:||35 cm. Medium-sized grey and white gadfly petrel. Grey upperparts with dark cap and dark "M" across wings. White underparts with indistinct pale grey half collar across upper breast. Predominantly dark grey-brown underwing. Similar spp. Zino's Petrel P. madeira is virtually identical but has a narrower, shorter bill and shorter wings. P. desertas appears identical but there are subtle vocal differences. Voice. On breeding grounds a range of wailing, cackling, ululating and hiccuping calls. Silent at sea.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Near Threatened ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.|
|Contributor(s):||Bourne, W., Gangloff, B., Geraldes, P., González-Solís, J., Menezes, D., Militão, T., Oliveira, P., Ramirez, I. & Sultana, J.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Anderson, O., Capper, D., Derhé, M., Martin, R, Moreno, R., O'Brien, A., Peet, N., Shutes, S., Symes, A., Taylor, J.|
This newly split species is listed as Near Threatened because it breeds on only four islands, where it faces a number of threats, although there is presently no evidence of an overall decline. Nevertheless, its restricted breeding range leaves it moderately susceptible to stochastic events and human impacts.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||Pterodroma feae breeds on four islands of Cape Verde: Fogo (50 pairs estimated; T. Militão et al. 2016; Militão et al. submitted), Santo Antão (minimum 200 pairs; Ratcliffe et al. 2000), São Nicolau (c.30 pairs; Ratcliffe et al. 2000) and Santiago (50 pairs estimated, J. González-Solís in litt.). An estimated 500-1,000 pairs breed in Cape Verde (Hazevoet 1995; Ratcliffe et al. 2000), although the population is likely to exceed this estimate (Ratcliffe et al. 2000). Birds remained around the breeding area during their non-breeding season (Ramos et al. 2016).|
Native:Cape Verde; Senegal; Western Sahara
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||An estimated 500-1,000 pairs breed on the Cape Verde Islands (Hazevoet 1995, Ratcliffe et al. 2000), although this must be regarded as an absolute minimum, as further colonies probably exist on Fogo and Santa Antão, and individuals have also been observed breeding in the central mountain range of Santiago Island (Ratcliffe et al. 2000) and in the PN Serra Malagueta (Santiago). Until further data are available, the population is estimated to include 1,000-2,000 mature individuals, assumed to equate to 1,500-3,000 individuals in total. Although a further analysis is necessary to conclude to assess the current population trend of P. feae, preliminary results of Fogo data reflects a decline due to a number of threats that are likely to be similar in the four breeding islands since all of them are inhabited by rural communities (T. Militão et al. 2016; Militão et al. submitted).|
Trend Justification: Although a further analysis is necessary to conclude to assess the current population trend of P. feae, preliminary results of Fogo data reflects a decline due to a number of threats that are likely to be similar in the four breeding islands (T. Militão et al. 2016; Militão et al. submitted).
|Current Population Trend:||Unknown|
|Habitat and Ecology:||It breeds in mountainous, rocky areas up to 2,200 m, and previously bred in mountain woodland, but this habitat no longer remains (del Hoyo et al. 1992). Egg laying takes place from mid January to mid February (T. Militão et al. 2016). Birds remained around the breeding area during their non-breeding season (Ramos et al. 2016) and they are mainly oceanic (J. González-Solís in litt.).|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Unknown|
|Generation Length (years):||16|
|Movement patterns:||Not a Migrant|
|Congregatory:||Congregatory (and dispersive)|
There is growing knowledge on threats to this species in Fogo (T. Militão et al. 2016). It is thought to be susceptible to invasive non-native predators, particularly cats (Medina et al. 2010), direct harvesting by humans and habitat degradation (P. L. Geraldes in litt. 2014). Birds are predated by cats and rats, collected by people for food and medicinal purposes, and breeding sites are limited by overgrazing by goats (Barov and Derhé 2011). The increase of artificial lights near the breeding colonies can also affect the breeding success of the species through direct mortality of juveniles during their first flights or habitat selection of adults for breeding.
Conservation Actions Underway
A European action plan was published in 1996 (Zino et al. 1996) and its implementation reviewed in 2010 (Barov and Derhé 2011), although the plans and review included both P. feae and P. deserta since they were prepared before the split of these taxa. A national park was established at Chã das Caldeiras on Fogo (D. Menezes and P. Oliveira in litt. 2007). The conservation of Pterodroma feae was incorporated into the park's agenda (Ratcliffe et al. 2000, D. Menezes and P. Oliveira in litt. 2007), but the park administration has had to deal with serious financial and operational problems (D. Menezes and P. Oliveira in litt. 2007). The park is involved in the basic monitoring of the population in Fogo (since 2010) and Serra Malagueta (Santiago, since 2014).
Conservation Actions Proposed
Conduct coordinated surveys to obtain an up-to-date estimate for the total breeding population. Continue annual surveys to monitor population trends. Study the at-sea distribution of the species. Study the impacts of various threats. Discourage off-take by people on the Cape Verde islands through awareness campaigns. Control cats, rats and goats on the Cape Verde islands. Control the expansion of public illumination and lights associated to main infrastructures (hotels, football courts, ports, etc).
|Amended reason:||Ticked this species as breeding endemic.|
Barov, B.;Derhé, M. A. 2011. Fea's Petrel Pterodroma feae species action plan implementation review. In: Barov, B. and Derhé, M. A. (eds), Review of The Implementation Of Species Action Plans for Threatened Birds in the European Union 2004-2010. Final report. BirdLife International For the European Commission.
Brooke, M. de L. 2004. Albatrosses and Petrels Across the World. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Hazevoet, C. J. 1995. The birds of the Cape Verde Islands. British Ornithologists' Union, Tring, U.K.
IUCN. 2017. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2017-3. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 7 December 2017).
Medina, F. M.; Oliveira, P.; Menezes, D.; Teixeira, S.; García, R.; Nogales, M. 2010. Trophic habits of feral cats in the high mountain shrublands of the Macaronesian islands (NW Africa, Atlantic Ocean). Acta theriologica 55(3): 241-250.
Menezes, D. 2007. Projecto LIFE: SOS Freira do Bugio. Pardela: 8.
Menezes, D.; Oliveira, P.; Ramirez, I. 2011. Medidas Urgentes para a Recuperação da Freira do Bugio Pterodroma feae e do seu Habitat. Final Report. Serviço Parque Natural da Madeira/ Sociedade Portuguesa para o Estudo das Aves (SEO).
Militão, T., H.A.Dinis, L.Zango, L. Stefan, P.Calabuig, J.González-Solís. Submitted. Population size, breeding biology and on land threats of Fea's petrel (Pterodroma feae) in Fogo Island, Cape Verde.
Militão T., H.Dinis, L. Zango, L.M.Stefan, J.González-Solís. 2016. On land threats and population viability of thecendemic gadfly petrel of Cape Verde Islands. Sixth International Albatross and Petrel Conference Barcelona, Spain.
Ramirez, I. 2008. Thought you knew about Fea's Petrel? It's time to think again. Sea Change: 9.
Ramos, R.,I.Ramírez, V.H.Paiva, T.Militão, M.Biscoito, D.Menezes, R.A.Phillips, F.Zino, J.González-Solís. 2016. Global spatial ecology of three closely-related gadfly petrels. Scientific Reports 6: 23447.
Ratcliffe, N.; Zino, F. J.; Oliveira, P.; Vasconcelos, A.; Hazevoet, C. J.; Neves, H. C.; Monteiro, L. R.; Zino, E. A. 2000. The status and distribution of Fea's Petrel Pterodroma feae in the Cape Verde Islands. Atlantic Seabirds 2(2): 73-86.
Shirihai, H.; Bretagnolle, V.; Zino, F. 2010. Identification of Fea's, Desertas and Zino's Petrels at sea. Birding World 23(6): 239-275.
Zino, F.; Heredia, B.; Biscoito, M. J. 1996. Action plan for Fea's Petrel (Pterodroma feae). In: Heredia, B.; Rose, L.; Painter, M. (ed.), Globally threatened birds in Europe: action plans, pp. 25-31. Council of Europe and BirdLife International, Strasbourg.
|Citation:||BirdLife International. 2017. Pterodroma feae (amended version of assessment). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T22728011A119181304.Downloaded on 18 June 2018.|
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