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Coracopsis barklyi 

Scope: Global
Language: English
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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Psittaciformes Psittacidae

Scientific Name: Coracopsis barklyi Newton 1867
Common Name(s):
English Seychelles Parrot, Seychelles Black Parrot
Taxonomic Source(s): del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
Taxonomic Notes: Coracopsis nigra, C. barklyi and C. sibilans (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) were previously lumped as C. nigra following Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable D1 ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2016-10-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Contributor(s): Bunbury, N., Rocamora, G., Seychelles Islands Foundation & Reuleaux, A.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J., Symes, A., Taylor, J. & Westrip, J.
Justification:
This newly split species is listed as Vulnerable because, although it appears to be stable or possibly increasing, its population remains very small, and therefore at risk from stochastic events and human impacts.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Coracopsis barklyi is resident on Praslin, with occasional records on Curieuse (c.1 km north of Praslin), Seychelles (Reuleaux et al. 2013). Point count surveys conducted on Praslin in 2010 and 2011 found a density of 0.14-0.24 individuals/ha, resulting in a total population estimate of 520-900 individuals (95% confidence intervals) obtained through distance sampling methodology (Reuleaux et al. 2013). No individuals were detected on Curieuse during point counts over four days and during supplementary fieldwork, thus it is assumed that there is no resident population there (Reuleaux et al. 2013). Prior to the surveys by Reuleaux et al. (2013), the most recent population estimate on Praslin was of 645 individuals (95% confidence intervals: 404-1,034 individuals), using distance sampling at 39 random points (Walford 2008). However, this study was deemed to have several methodological and analytical constraints, which meant that assumptions of the distance sampling method were not met (Walford 2008, Reuleaux et al. 2013) and resulting in an estimate range that was considered too broad to serve as a basis for conservation planning (Reuleaux et al. 2013). After reviewing recent survey results, Rocamora and Laboudallon (2013) estimate a total breeding population of fewer than 200 pairs, suggesting that there could be fewer than 400 mature individuals. A review of previous survey results indicates that this species has recovered from a low point of c.30-50 individuals in one area of the island in the late 1960s, increasing until the at least the turn of the century, with uncertainty over the trend since then (Reuleaux et al. 2013, Rocamora and Laboudallon 2013).
Countries occurrence:
Native:
Seychelles
Additional data:
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):NoEstimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:70
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):UnknownExtreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):No
Continuing decline in number of locations:No
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:No
Upper elevation limit (metres):367
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:Point count surveys conducted on Praslin in 2010 and 2011 found a density of 0.14-0.24 individuals/ha, resulting in a total population estimate of 520-900 individuals (95% confidence intervals) obtained through distance sampling methodology (Reuleaux et al. 2013). After reviewing recent survey results, Rocamora and Laboudallon (2013) estimate a total breeding population of fewer than 200 pairs, suggesting that there could be fewer than 400 mature individuals. On the basis of these data, it is assumed that there are 340-600 mature individuals in the population.

Trend Justification:  The population is suspected to be stable in the absence of evidence for any declines or immediate threats. The species is thought to have increased at least until the turn of the century, but it is not clear if it is still increasing (Reuleaux et al. 2013, Rocamora and Laboudallon 2013).
Current Population Trend:Stable
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:340-600Continuing decline of mature individuals:No
Extreme fluctuations:NoPopulation severely fragmented:No
No. of subpopulations:1Continuing decline in subpopulations:No
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:NoAll individuals in one subpopulation:Yes
No. of individuals in largest subpopulation:100

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This species inhabits native and mixed forest on Praslin, (Rocamora and Laboudallon 2013, A. Reuleaux and N. Bunbury in litt. 2016). Its core breeding areas are located in endemic palm forest dominated by coco de mer Lodoicea maldivica. The species nests in tree cavities mainly in dead coco de mer palms, but they have also been recorded to nest in cavities in other palms and living broadleaf trees (Reuleaux et al. 2014a), with breeding activity from October to March (Rocamora and Laboudallon 2013, Reuleaux et al. 2014a). Deep cavities in hollow L. maldivica trunks with dense canopy cover over the entrance are preferred (Reuleaux et al. 2014a). Breeding activity fluctuates widely between years (A. Reuleaux and N. Bunbury in litt. 2016). In one sutdy, 53% of nests were found to be successful out of 36 nest attempts with 57% fledgling survival to one year (Reuleaux et al. 2014a). It is also found in cultivated areas and residential areas with gardens, which are suitable feeding habitats (A. Reuleaux and N. Bunbury in litt. 2016). It feeds on a range of plant species, the majority of which are endemic and native (Reuleaux et al. 2014b). It mainly feeds on the fruit pulp, followed by seeds and buds, with occasional observations of feeding on leaves, flowers, bark and scale insects (Reuleaux et al. 2014b).
Systems:Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Unknown
Generation Length (years):13.8
Movement patterns:Not a Migrant

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The decline in this species prior to the 1960s is thought to have been driven mainly by predation by introduced rats and hunting by settlers and farmers (Rocamora and Laboudallon 2013). Other causes of increased mortality have included capture for pets and trade and incidental trapping when other species are targeted.

The most serious current threats to the species include diseases such as Psittacine Beak and Feather Disease, ongoing nest predation from rats and cats, competition from introduced bird species for food and nest-sites, poaching of its main nesting tree (coco de mer), and habitat destruction caused by fires, with potential threats including persecution, pesticides, netting of bat species and inbreeding (Rocamora and Laboudallon 2013, Seychelles Islands Foundation in litt. 2014). Forest fires may represent the most serious threat to the species, with records since the early 1980s showing that approximately every 10 years a large fire occurs (Seychelles Islands Foundation in litt. 2014). The availability of nesting cavities may be a limiting factor in very active breeding years, with some females occupying sub-optimal cavities. The poaching of coco de mer nuts will likely reduce the area of palm forest over the long term. The presence of Rose-ringed Parakeets Psittacula krameri on Mahé, one of which has been recorded on Praslin, increases the risk of disease. The impacts of introduced species through nest predation and competition for nest-sites may not yet be serious enough to limit the population; however, mynahs are increasing on Praslin. Yellow crazy ants do not appear to have impacted the species so far, probably because they do not use dead palm trees, where suitable cavities are located. Predation of fledglings by cats and dogs is probably limited and post-fledging mortality is not currently a major concern. Persecution by farmers is regarded as a minor threat. Other risk factors for the species include its low genetic diversity and large, and so-far unexplained, fluctuations in breeding activity from season to season (Seychelles Islands Foundation in litt. 2014).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
The species has been protected by law since 1966 (Rocamora and Laboudallon 2013). Endemic palms have been protected since 1991, and the restoration of native palm forest on Praslin and Curieuse is on-going. The species occurs in Praslin National Park, which was established in 1979, and Vallée de Mai was designated a World Heritage Site in 1983. Fond Ferdinand and Curieuse island are managed as nature reserves, but they lack official protected status. Artificial nest boxes were provided between 1983 and c.2005 (Rocamora and Laboudallon 2013, A. Reuleaux and N. Bunbury in litt. 2016).

There is a firebreak around the core breeding area at Vallée de Mai, but it is not guaranteed to work in the event of a large fire which cannot be quickly contained (Seychelles Islands Foundation in litt. 2014), however they proved to be only partially effective when a fire destroyed several hectares of high quality breeding habitat in 2010 (A. Reuleaux and N. Bunbury in litt. 2016). The poaching of coco de mer nuts is being counteracted with increased security and a regeneration programme, and awareness-raising activities have been conducted to reduce persecution by farmers. Measures are being undertaken to eradicate Rose-ringed Parakeets Psittacus krameri from Mahé and they are also being screened for the Psittacine Beak and Feather Disease virus (Seychelles Islands Foundation in litt. 2014).

A national action plan for the species was produced in 2009 and includes plans to introduce the species to Silhouette, along with captive breeding on Frégate and Île du Nord if appropriate habitat restoration and management can be carried out (reviewed by Rocamora and Laboudallon 2013). Other conservation actions identified for this species include the control of introduced species, the renovation and improvement of nest-boxes, population monitoring and public awareness campaigns (reviewed by Rocamora and Laboudallon 2013). Analysis using statistical models is planned in 2014 after annual counts have been conducted for three years without interruption, and conclusions regarding the species trend since 1982 will be published (G. Rocamora in litt. 2014). Repetition of the distance sampling survey is planned at 5-10 year intervals (A. REuleaux and N. Bunbury in litt. 2016).

Conservation Actions Proposed
Carry out further surveys to acquire a more accurate estimate of the population size and to monitor the population trend. Conduct research into the impacts of potential threats. Protect additional areas of native palm forest. Restore suitable native habitats. Continue awareness-raising activities to eliminate any residual persecution.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:Yes
3. Shrubland -> 3.6. Shrubland - Subtropical/Tropical Moist
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:No
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.1. Artificial/Terrestrial - Arable Land
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:No
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.4. Artificial/Terrestrial - Rural Gardens
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:No
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.5. Artificial/Terrestrial - Urban Areas
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:No
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
2. Land/water management -> 2.3. Habitat & natural process restoration
4. Education & awareness -> 4.3. Awareness & communications

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
  Action Recovery plan:Yes
  Systematic monitoring scheme:Yes
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
  Invasive species control or prevention:Yes
In-Place Species Management
  Successfully reintroduced or introduced beningly:No
  Subject to ex-situ conservation:No
In-Place Education
  Subject to recent education and awareness programmes:Yes
  Included in international legislation:No
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:Yes
11. Climate change & severe weather -> 11.4. Storms & flooding
♦ timing:Future ♦ scope:Whole (>90%) ♦ severity:Unknown ⇒ Impact score:Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing:Past, Unlikely to Return ♦ scope:Majority (50-90%) ♦ severity:Negligible declines ⇒ Impact score:Past Impact 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.2. Unintentional effects (species is not the target)
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Minority (<50%) ♦ severity:Negligible declines ⇒ Impact score:Low Impact: 4 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.3. Persecution/control
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Minority (<50%) ♦ severity:Negligible declines ⇒ Impact score:Low Impact: 4 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

5. Biological resource use -> 5.2. Gathering terrestrial plants -> 5.2.2. Unintentional effects (species is not the target)
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Majority (50-90%) ♦ severity:Negligible declines ⇒ Impact score:Low Impact: 5 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

7. Natural system modifications -> 7.1. Fire & fire suppression -> 7.1.1. Increase in fire frequency/intensity
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Majority (50-90%) ♦ severity:Causing/Could cause fluctuations ⇒ Impact score:Medium Impact: 6 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

8. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases -> 8.1. Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases -> 8.1.2. Named species
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Majority (50-90%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score:Medium Impact: 6 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.3. Indirect species effects -> 2.3.7. Reduced reproductive success

8. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases -> 8.2. Problematic native species/diseases -> 8.2.2. Named species [ Psittacula krameri ]
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Majority (50-90%) ♦ severity:Unknown ⇒ Impact score:Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.3. Indirect species effects -> 2.3.2. Competition

8. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases -> 8.4. Problematic species/disease of unknown origin -> 8.4.1. Unspecified species
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Majority (50-90%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score:Medium Impact: 6 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.3. Indirect species effects -> 2.3.7. Reduced reproductive success

8. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases -> 8.5. Viral/prion-induced diseases -> 8.5.2. Named species
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Majority (50-90%) ♦ severity:Unknown ⇒ Impact score:Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

9. Pollution -> 9.3. Agricultural & forestry effluents -> 9.3.3. Herbicides and pesticides
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Majority (50-90%) ♦ severity:Unknown ⇒ Impact score:Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.3. Indirect ecosystem effects

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats

Bibliography [top]

del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J. 1997. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 4: Sandgrouse to Cuckoos. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-3. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 07 December 2016).

Reuleaux, A.; Bunbury, N.; Villard, P.; Waltert, M. 2013. Status, distribution and recommendations for monitoring of the Seychelles black parrot Coracopsis (nigra) barklyi. Oryx 47(4): 561–568.

Reuleaux, A.; Richards, H.; Payet, T.; Villard, P.; Waltert, M.; Bunbury, N. 2014a. Breeding ecology of the Seychelles black parrot Coracopsis barklyi. Ostrich 85: 255-265.

Reuleaux, A.; Richards, H.; Payet, T.; Villard, P.; Waltert, M.; Bunbury, N. 2014b. Insights into the feeding ecology of the Seychelles black parrot Coracopsis barklyi using two monitoring approaches. Ostrich 85: 245-253.

Rocamora, G.; Laboudallon, V. 2013. Seychelles Black Parrot Coracopsis barklyi. In: Safford, R. J.; Hawkins, A. F. A. (ed.), The Birds of Africa. Volume VIII: The Malagasy Region, pp. 529-531. Christopher Helm, London.

Walford, E. P. 2008. An insight into the ecology of an isolated Psittacid: the Seychelles Black Parrot (Coracopsis nigra barklyi). MSc Appl. Ecol. Conserv., University of East Anglia.


Citation: BirdLife International. 2016. Coracopsis barklyi. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T22727890A94964796. . Downloaded on 21 September 2017.
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