|Scientific Name:||Loxia pytyopsittacus Borkhausen, 1793|
|Taxonomic Source(s):||Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Ashpole, J, Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J.|
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be stable, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is very large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
Native:Belarus; Belgium; Denmark; Estonia; Finland; Germany; Latvia; Lithuania; Netherlands; Norway; Poland; Portugal; Russian Federation (Central Asian Russia - Vagrant, European Russia); Sweden; United Kingdom
Vagrant:Austria; Croatia; France; Iceland; Italy; Luxembourg; Montenegro; Romania; Serbia; Slovenia
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||In Europe (which covers >95% of the breeding range), the breeding population is estimated to be 424,000-1,560,000 pairs, which equates to 848,000-3,120,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015).|
Trend Justification: The population is suspected to be stable in the absence of evidence for any declines or substantial threats.
|Current Population Trend:||Stable|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This is a species of lowland pine forests and woodlands. It is found predominantly in tall, mature and open woodlands of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and occasionally in mixed conifer forests with larch (Larix), spruce (Picea) and rowan (Sorbus). It also occurs in coastal shelter-belts and introduced conifer plantations, usually of large-coned species. On passage and in wintering areas may occur more widely in mixed conifer and deciduous woodlands. The breeding season runs from December to late June and it generally lays three to four eggs. The nest is constructed mostly of dry conifer twigs, bark strips, pine needles, grass, leaves, moss, lichens, plant fibres and down, animal hair or fur, and sometimes also some feathers. It is normally placed close to the trunk, on a branch or in a fork up to 20 m above ground in a conifer at the woodland edge. It feeds mostly on seeds, buds and shoots, commonly of pines (particularly Scots pine) and spruce (Clement 2016). The species is resident and dispersive and also occasionally irruptive (Snow and Perrins 1998).|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Unknown|
|Generation Length (years):||3.4|
|Movement patterns:||Not a Migrant|
|Major Threat(s):||The population is thought to have declined near the end of the 20th century as a result of the commercial removal of mature pine trees, which affected amount and distribution of conifer seed (Clement 2016).|
Conservation Actions Underway
Bern Convention Appendix II. There are currently no known conservation measures for this species.
Conservation Actions Proposed
This species would likely benefit from the maintenance of low-intensity forestry management practices, including the preservation of mature trees.
BirdLife International. 2004. Birds in Europe: population estimates, trends and conservation status. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.
BirdLife International. 2015. European Red List of Birds. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg.
Clement, P. 2016. Parrot Crossbill (Loxia pytyopsittacus). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. and de Juana, E. (eds), Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive, Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.
IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-3. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 07 December 2016).
Snow, D.W. and Perrins, C.M. 1998. The Birds of the Western Palearctic, Volume 2: Passerines. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
|Citation:||BirdLife International. 2016. Loxia pytyopsittacus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T22720638A88651987.Downloaded on 23 March 2018.|
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